Rapid microelectrode measurements and the origin and regulation of extracellular glutamate in rat prefrontal cortex.
ABSTRACT Glutamate in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a significant role in several mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, addiction and anxiety. Previous studies on PFC glutamate-mediated function have used techniques that raise questions on the neuronal versus astrocytic origin of glutamate. The present studies used enzyme-based microelectrode arrays to monitor second-by-second resting glutamate levels in the PFC of awake rats. Locally applied drugs were employed in an attempt to discriminate between the neuronal or glial components of the resting glutamate signal. Local application of tetrodotoxin (sodium channel blocker), produced a significant (∼ 40%) decline in resting glutamate levels. In addition significant reductions in extracellular glutamate were seen with locally applied ω-conotoxin (MVIIC; ∼ 50%; calcium channel blocker), and the mGluR(2/3) agonist, LY379268 (∼ 20%), and a significant increase with the mGluR(2/3) antagonist LY341495 (∼ 40%), effects all consistent with a large neuronal contribution to the resting glutamate levels. Local administration of D,L-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (glutamate transporter inhibitor) produced an ∼ 120% increase in extracellular glutamate levels, supporting that excitatory amino acid transporters, which are largely located on glia, modulate clearance of extracellular glutamate. Interestingly, local application of (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (cystine/glutamate antiporter inhibitor), produced small, non-significant bi-phasic changes in extracellular glutamate versus vehicle control. Finally, pre-administration of tetrodotoxin completely blocked the glutamate response to tail pinch stress. Taken together, these results support that PFC resting glutamate levels in rats as measured by the microelectrode array technology are at least 40-50% derived from neurons. Furthermore, these data support that the impulse flow-dependent glutamate release from a physiologically -evoked event is entirely neuronally derived.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Kevin Nicholas Hascup, May 29, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Maurizio Popoli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has shown that the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, is associated with abnormal function and regulation of the glutamatergic system. Consistently, preclinical studies on stress-based animal models of pathology showed that glucocorticoids and stress exert crucial effects on neuronal excitability and function, especially in cortical and limbic areas. In prefrontal and frontal cortex, acute stress was shown to induce enhancement of glutamate release/transmission dependent on activation of corticosterone receptors. Although the mechanisms whereby stress affects glutamate transmission have not yet been fully understood, it was shown that synaptic, non-genomic action of corticosterone is required to increase the readily releasable pool of glutamate vesicles but is not sufficient to enhance transmission in prefrontal and frontal cortex. Slower, partly genomic mechanisms are probably necessary for the enhancement of glutamate transmission induced by stress. Combined evidence has suggested that the changes in glutamate release and transmission are responsible for the dendritic remodeling and morphological changes induced by stress and it has been argued that sustained alterations of glutamate transmission may play a key role in the long-term structural/functional changes associated with mood disorders in patients. Intriguingly, modifications of the glutamatergic system induced by stress in the prefrontal cortex seem to be biphasic. Indeed, while the fast response to stress suggests an enhancement in the number of excitatory synapses, synaptic transmission and working memory, long-term adaptive changes -including those consequent to chronic stress- induce opposite effects. Better knowledge of the cellular effectors involved in this biphasic effect of stress may be useful to understand the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, and open new paths for the development of therapeutic approaches.Frontiers in Psychiatry 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00060
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) has been widely used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. In order to mimic cognitive impairments in psychiatry, one approach has been to use acute administration of NMDA antagonists. This disruption in glutamatergic transmission leads to impairments in accuracy, omissions, and premature responses although findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we further investigated glutamatergic mechanisms using a novel version of the 5CSRTT, which we have previously shown to be more sensitive to cognitive enhancers. We first investigated the effects of systemic treatment with NMDA antagonists. We also carried out a preliminary investigation using targeted medial prefrontal cortex infusions of a NMDA antagonist (MK801), mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495), and mGluR7 negative allosteric modulator (MMPIP). Acute systemic administration of the different NMDA antagonists had no specific effects on accuracy. At higher doses PCP, ketamine, and memantine, increased omissions and affected other measures suggesting a general disruption in task performance. Only MK801 increased premature responses, and reduced omissions at lower doses suggesting stimulant like effects. None of the NMDA antagonists affected accuracy or any other measures when tested using a short stimulus challenge. Infusions of MK801 had no effect on accuracy but increased premature responses following infralimbic, but not prelimbic infusion. LY341495 had no effects in either brain region but a decrease in accuracy was observed following prelimbic infusion of MMPIP. Contrary to our hypothesis, disruptions to glutamate transmission using NMDA antagonists did not induce any clear deficits in accuracy in this modified version of the 5CSRTT. We also found that the profile of effects for MK801 differed from those observed with PCP, ketamine, and memantine. The effects of MK801 in the infralimbic cortex add to the literature indicating this brain region and glutamate play an important role in impulse control.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115374. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115374 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depression is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder that affects an estimated 350 million people worldwide. Currently available treatments for depression are lacking in both speed of onset and efficacy. Recent pharmacological efforts have targeted the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system using the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects, however the widespread clinical use of ketamine is limited due to side effects and abuse liability. More recently, work evaluating metabotropic mGluR2/3 receptor antagonists has demonstrated many similarities with ketamine. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm, which produces decreased sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia. Rats were then treated with vehicle or a single injection of the mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested at 24 hrs, 48 hrs or 10 days after a single treatment. We demonstrate that a single treatment with LY341495 produces a rapid (within 1-2 days) and long-lasting (10 days) reversal of anhedonia caused by chronic unpredictable stress in rats. This model provides a rigorous test of rapid-acting agents as typical antidepressants require several weeks of treatment to produce a response. These data suggest that LY341495 has the ability to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects similar to ketamine. Together, the results highlight the potential for similar compounds to produce rapid and lasting efficacy for the treatment of depression.01/2013; 1(1):15. DOI:10.1186/2049-9256-1-15