Down-regulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by NF-κB activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Bcl-2 family is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. NF-κB activation is associated with either the expression of Bcl-2 or down-regulation of Bcl-2 depending on cell types and stimuli. Previously, we showed NF-κB activation, decrease in the level of Bcl-2, and apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study aims to investigate the relation of Bcl-2 expression and NF-κB activation in H. pylori-induced apoptotic cell death of AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma) cells.
AGS cells were transfected with mutant IκBα to suppress NF-κB activation or Bcl-2 gene to induce overexpression of Bcl-2. mRNA expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax, DNA fragmentation, cell viability, and the numbers of apoptotic cells were determined.
H. pylori induced decrease in Bcl-2, but increase in p53 and Bax at the levels of mRNA and protein in AGS cells. H. pylori-induced increment of apoptotic cells and decrease in Bcl-2 level were inhibited in the cells transfected with mutant IκBα gene as compared with the cells transfected with control vector. H. pylori-induced apoptosis determined by apoptotic cells, DNA fragmentation, and cell viability was inhibited in the cells transfected with Bcl-2 gene.
Down-regulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by NF-κB activation, which may be the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Waleed Renno[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anti-apoptotic effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion (TT/D) was established in our previous study. In mice, the smallest inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin, is alternatively spliced into three variants, each suggested to have a unique function. Here, we assessed how EGCG exerts its protective effect through the expression of the different survivin splice variants and determined its effect on the morphology of the seminiferous tubules during TT/D. Three mouse groups were used: sham, TT/D+vehicle and TT/D treated with EGCG. The expression of the survivin variants (140 and 40) and other apoptosis genes (p53, Bax and Bcl-2) was measured with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Histological analysis was performed to assess DNA fragmentation, damage to spermatogenesis and morphometric changes in the seminiferous tubules. In the TT/D+vehicle group, survivin 140 expression was markedly decreased, whereas survivin 40 expression was not significantly different. In parallel, there was an increase in the mRNA level of p53 and the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio in support of apoptosis induction. Histological analyses revealed increased DNA fragmentation and increased damage to spermatogenesis associated with decreased seminiferous tubular diameter and decreased germinal epithelial cell thickness in the TT/D+vehicle group. These changes were reversed to almost sham levels upon EGCG treatment. Our data indicate that EGCG protects the testis from TT/D-induced damage by protecting the morphology of the seminiferous tubules and modulating survivin 140 expression.Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 08/2013; 17(4):259-65. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal disease is well established. However, only a small fraction of H. pylori carriers develop disease, and there are great geographical differences in disease penetrance. The explanation to this enigma lies in the interaction between the bacterium and the host. H. pylori Outer Membrane Phospholipase A (OMPLA) has been suggested to play a role in the virulence of this bacterium. The aim of this study was to profile the most significant cellular pathways and biological processes affected in gastric epithelial cells during 24 h of H. pylori exposure, and to study the inflammatory response to OMPLA⁺ and OMPLA⁻ H. pylori variants. Interleukin-8 was the most significantly up-regulated gene and appears to play a paramount role in the epithelial cell response to H. pylori infection and in the pathological processes leading to gastric disease. MAPK and NF-kappaB cellular pathways were powerfully activated, but did not seem to explain the impressive IL-8 response. There was marked up-regulation of TP53BP2, whose corresponding protein ASPP2 may interact with H. pylori CagA and cause marked p53 suppression of apoptosis. Other regulators of apoptosis also showed abberant regulation. We also identified up-regulation of several oncogenes and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes as early as during the first 24 h of infection. H. pylori OMPLA phase variation did not seem to influence the inflammatory epithelial cell gene response in this experiment. In whole genome analysis of the epithelial response to H. pylori exposure, IL-8 demonstrated the most marked up-regulation, and was involved in many of the most important cellular response processes to the infection. There was dysregulation of apoptosis, tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes as early as in the first 24 h of H. pylori infection, which may represent early signs of gastric tumorigenesis. OMPLA⁺/⁻ did not affect the acute inflammatory response to H. pylori.BMC Microbiology 01/2012; 12:9. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TNF-α and IFN-γ are the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the β-cell destruction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study used a murine insulinoma cell line MIN6 for further investigation of the effect of Caspase-3 on the cytokines-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and analyzed the mechanisms involved in the activation of Caspase-3. It was showed that the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α significantly reduced the viability of MIN6 cells and the observed cells growth inhibition was due to cell apoptosis as judged by the morphological changes under a confocal laser scanning microscopy and FACS assay of Annexin-V/7-AAD double staining. Accompanying with NF-κB activation and Bcl-2 downregulation, both the cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP, a known substrate of Caspase-3 in vivo, were observed at 24 and 12 h, respectively, after cells exposure to IFN-γ and TNF-α treatment. Pretreatment of Caspase-3 inhibitors remarkably attenuated IFN-γ- and TNF-α-induced cells apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB activation led to the increase in Bcl-2 expression, a significant attenuation in Caspase-3 activity, and an obvious amelioration in cells viability in IFN-γ- and TNF-α-treated MIN6 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that Caspase-3 is critical for the induction of MIN6 cells apoptosis and it's activation is further confirmed to be related to the NF-κB-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation, which may be the underlying mechanism of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-mediated MIN6 cells apoptosis.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 05/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor