Down-regulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by NF-κB activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Bcl-2 family is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. NF-κB activation is associated with either the expression of Bcl-2 or down-regulation of Bcl-2 depending on cell types and stimuli. Previously, we showed NF-κB activation, decrease in the level of Bcl-2, and apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study aims to investigate the relation of Bcl-2 expression and NF-κB activation in H. pylori-induced apoptotic cell death of AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma) cells.
AGS cells were transfected with mutant IκBα to suppress NF-κB activation or Bcl-2 gene to induce overexpression of Bcl-2. mRNA expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax, DNA fragmentation, cell viability, and the numbers of apoptotic cells were determined.
H. pylori induced decrease in Bcl-2, but increase in p53 and Bax at the levels of mRNA and protein in AGS cells. H. pylori-induced increment of apoptotic cells and decrease in Bcl-2 level were inhibited in the cells transfected with mutant IκBα gene as compared with the cells transfected with control vector. H. pylori-induced apoptosis determined by apoptotic cells, DNA fragmentation, and cell viability was inhibited in the cells transfected with Bcl-2 gene.
Down-regulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by NF-κB activation, which may be the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
SourceAvailable from: Seung-Heon Hong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production is toxic to the cochlea and induces hearing loss. However, the mechanism through which NO induces ototoxicity has not been completely understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanism mediating NO-induced toxicity in auditory HEI-OC1 cells and in ex vivo analysis. We also elucidated whether and how epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea polyphenols, regulates NO-induced auditory cell damage. To investigate NO-mediated ototoxicity, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) was used as an NO donor. SNAP was cytotoxic, generating reactive oxygen species, releasing cytochrome c, and activating caspase-3 in auditory cells. NO-induced ototoxicity also mediated the nuclear factor (NF)-κB/caspase-1 pathway. Furthermore, SNAP destroyed the orderly arrangement of the 3 outer rows of hair cells in the basal, middle, and apical turns of the organ of Corti from the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 2. However, EGCG counteracted this ototoxicity by suppressing the activation of caspase-3/NF-κB and preventing the destruction of hair cell arrays in the organ of Corti. These findings may lead to the development of a model for pharmacological mechanism of EGCG and potential therapies against ototoxicity.PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e43967. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043967 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The anti-apoptotic effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion (TT/D) was established in our previous study. In mice, the smallest inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin, is alternatively spliced into three variants, each suggested to have a unique function. Here, we assessed how EGCG exerts its protective effect through the expression of the different survivin splice variants and determined its effect on the morphology of the seminiferous tubules during TT/D. Three mouse groups were used: sham, TT/D+vehicle and TT/D treated with EGCG. The expression of the survivin variants (140 and 40) and other apoptosis genes (p53, Bax and Bcl-2) was measured with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Histological analysis was performed to assess DNA fragmentation, damage to spermatogenesis and morphometric changes in the seminiferous tubules. In the TT/D+vehicle group, survivin 140 expression was markedly decreased, whereas survivin 40 expression was not significantly different. In parallel, there was an increase in the mRNA level of p53 and the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio in support of apoptosis induction. Histological analyses revealed increased DNA fragmentation and increased damage to spermatogenesis associated with decreased seminiferous tubular diameter and decreased germinal epithelial cell thickness in the TT/D+vehicle group. These changes were reversed to almost sham levels upon EGCG treatment. Our data indicate that EGCG protects the testis from TT/D-induced damage by protecting the morphology of the seminiferous tubules and modulating survivin 140 expression.Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 08/2013; 17(4):259-65. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.4.259 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TNF-α and IFN-γ are the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the β-cell destruction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study used a murine insulinoma cell line MIN6 for further investigation of the effect of Caspase-3 on the cytokines-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and analyzed the mechanisms involved in the activation of Caspase-3. It was showed that the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α significantly reduced the viability of MIN6 cells and the observed cells growth inhibition was due to cell apoptosis as judged by the morphological changes under a confocal laser scanning microscopy and FACS assay of Annexin-V/7-AAD double staining. Accompanying with NF-κB activation and Bcl-2 downregulation, both the cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP, a known substrate of Caspase-3 in vivo, were observed at 24 and 12 h, respectively, after cells exposure to IFN-γ and TNF-α treatment. Pretreatment of Caspase-3 inhibitors remarkably attenuated IFN-γ- and TNF-α-induced cells apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB activation led to the increase in Bcl-2 expression, a significant attenuation in Caspase-3 activity, and an obvious amelioration in cells viability in IFN-γ- and TNF-α-treated MIN6 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that Caspase-3 is critical for the induction of MIN6 cells apoptosis and it's activation is further confirmed to be related to the NF-κB-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation, which may be the underlying mechanism of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-mediated MIN6 cells apoptosis.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 05/2013; 67(3). DOI:10.1007/s12013-013-9642-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor