Genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env V3 loop sequences: bioinformatics prediction of coreceptor usage among 28 infected mother-infant pairs in a drug-naive population.
ABSTRACT We sought to predict virus coreceptor utilization using a simple bioinformatics method based on genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 (HIV-1) env V3 loop sequences of 28 infected but drug-naive women during pregnancy and their infected infants and to better understand coreceptor usage in vertical transmission dynamics. The HIV-1 env V3 loop was sequenced from plasma samples and analyzed for viral coreceptor usage and subtype in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women. Predicted maternal frequencies of the X4, R5X4, and R5 genotypes were 7%, 11%, and 82%, respectively. Antenatal plasma viral load was higher, with a mean log(10) (SD) of 4.8 (1.6) and 3.6 (1.2) for women with the X4 and R5 genotypes, respectively, p = 0.078. Amino acid substitution from the conserved V3 loop crown motif GPGQ to GPGR and lymphadenopathy were associated with the X4 genotype, p = 0.031 and 0.043, respectively. The maternal viral coreceptor genotype was generally preserved in vertical transmission and was predictive of the newborn's viral genotype. Infants born to mothers with X4 genotypes were more likely to have lower birth weights relative to those born to mothers with the R5 genotype, with a mean weight (SD) of 2870 (±332) and 3069 (±300) g, respectively. These data show that at least in HIV-1 subtype C, R5 coreceptor usage is the most predominant genotype, which is generally preserved following vertical transmission and is associated with the V3 GPGQ crown motif. Therefore, antiretroviral-naive pregnant women and their infants can benefit from ARV combination therapies that include R5 entry inhibitors following prediction of their coreceptor genotype using simple bioinformatics methods.
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ABSTRACT: Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. To document the evolution of coreceptor tropism during pregnancy, a longitudinal study of envelope gene sequences was performed in a group of pregnant women infected with HIV-1 of clade B (n=10) or non-B (n=9). PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region was performed on plasma viral RNA, followed by cloning and sequencing. Using Geno2pheno and PSSM<sub>X4R5</sub>, the presence of X4 variants was predicted in 9 of 19 subjects (X4 subjects) independent of HIV-1 clade. Six of 9 X4 subjects exhibited CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell counts < 200 cells/mm<sup>3</sup>, and presence of X4-capable virus was confirmed using recombinant phenotypic assay in 4 of 7 cases where testing was successful. In 5 of 9 X4 subjects, a statistically significant decline in the Geno2pheno false positive rate was observed during the course of pregnancy, invariably accompanied by progressive increases in the PSSM<sub>X4R5</sub> score, the net charge of V3, and the relative representation of X4 sequences. Evolution toward X4 tropism was also echoed in the primary structure of V2, as accumulation of substitutions associated with CXCR4 tropism was seen in X4 subjects. Results from these experiments provide first evidence of ongoing evolution of coreceptor utilization from CCR5 to CXCR4 during pregnancy in a significant fraction of HIV-infected women. These results inform changes in host-pathogen interactions that lead to a directional shaping of viral populations and viral tropism during pregnancy, and provide insights into the biology of HIV transmission from mother to child.AIDS research and human retroviruses 10/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To characterize phylogenetic relatedness of plasma HIV-1 RNA subtype C env gp120 viral variants capable of establishing an infection following heterosexual and subsequent vertical transmission events a 650-base pair fragment within the C2-V5 subregion was sequenced from four HIV-1-infected families each consisting of biological parent(s), index children (first), and subsequent (second) siblings. None of the family members had received antiretroviral therapy at the time of sample collection. Sequence alignment and analysis were done using Gene Doc, Clustal X, and MEGA software programs. Second siblings' sequences were homogeneous and clustered in a single branch while first siblings' sequences were more heterogeneous, clustering in separate branches, suggestive of more than one donor variants responsible for the infection or evolution from founder variant(s) could have occurred. While the directionality for heterosexual transmission could not be determined, homogeneous viral variants were a unique characteristic of maternal variants as opposed to the more heterogeneous paternal variants. Analysis of families' sequences demonstrated a localized expansion of the subtype C infection. We demonstrated that families' sequences clustered quite closely with other regional HIV-1 subtype C sequences supported by a bootstrap value of 86%, confirming the difficulty of classifying subtype C sequences on a geographic basis. Data are indicative of several mechanisms that may be involved in both vertical and heterosexual transmission. Larger studies are warranted to address the caveats of this study and build on the strengths. Our study could be the beginning of family-based HIV-1 intervention research in Zimbabwe.AIDS research and human retroviruses 12/2011; 28(8):885-93. · 2.18 Impact Factor