Genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env V3 loop sequences: bioinformatics prediction of coreceptor usage among 28 infected mother-infant pairs in a drug-naive population.
ABSTRACT We sought to predict virus coreceptor utilization using a simple bioinformatics method based on genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 (HIV-1) env V3 loop sequences of 28 infected but drug-naive women during pregnancy and their infected infants and to better understand coreceptor usage in vertical transmission dynamics. The HIV-1 env V3 loop was sequenced from plasma samples and analyzed for viral coreceptor usage and subtype in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women. Predicted maternal frequencies of the X4, R5X4, and R5 genotypes were 7%, 11%, and 82%, respectively. Antenatal plasma viral load was higher, with a mean log(10) (SD) of 4.8 (1.6) and 3.6 (1.2) for women with the X4 and R5 genotypes, respectively, p = 0.078. Amino acid substitution from the conserved V3 loop crown motif GPGQ to GPGR and lymphadenopathy were associated with the X4 genotype, p = 0.031 and 0.043, respectively. The maternal viral coreceptor genotype was generally preserved in vertical transmission and was predictive of the newborn's viral genotype. Infants born to mothers with X4 genotypes were more likely to have lower birth weights relative to those born to mothers with the R5 genotype, with a mean weight (SD) of 2870 (±332) and 3069 (±300) g, respectively. These data show that at least in HIV-1 subtype C, R5 coreceptor usage is the most predominant genotype, which is generally preserved following vertical transmission and is associated with the V3 GPGQ crown motif. Therefore, antiretroviral-naive pregnant women and their infants can benefit from ARV combination therapies that include R5 entry inhibitors following prediction of their coreceptor genotype using simple bioinformatics methods.
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ABSTRACT: Isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) display marked differences in their ability to replicate in macrophages and transformed T-cell lines in vitro, a property that has important implications for disease pathogenesis. The restriction in replication between these two CD4-positive cell types is largely at the level of viral entry and is regulated by the viral envelope (env) gene. The envelope protein (Env) is responsible for fusion of the viral and host membranes, and a particular region of Env called the V3-loop has been implicated in regulating viral tropism. However, other regions of Env, such as the V1- and V2-loops, have been shown to modulate the effects of the V3-loop. The discovery that Env initially binds the CD4 molecule on the target cell surface and then makes subsequent interactions with one of several members of the chemokine receptor family has greatly enhanced the molecular understanding of HIV-1 entry. The differential use of chemokine receptors by different viral isolates and their expression in different cell types largely explains viral tropism. The same regions in Env responsible for virus tropism have also been shown to play an important role in mediating chemokine receptor use. The recent crystallization of HIV-1 Env in complex with CD4 illuminates the architecture of the components involved in mediating fusion between the viral and host membranes. The spatial relationship between variable structures of Env previously implicated in tropism and chemokine receptor use and conserved Env structures potentially involved in chemokine receptor binding are discussed.Molecular Membrane Biology 16(1):57-65. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C viruses have been found to almost exclusively use the chemokine receptor CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry, even in patients with advanced AIDS. We have characterized subtype C virus isolates from 28 patients from Harare, Zimbabwe, 20 of whom were receiving antiretroviral treatment. Virus from 10 of the treated patients induced syncytium formation (SI virus) when cultured with MT2 cells. Only non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) virus was cultured from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the eight patients who had not received treatment. The majority of these subtype C SI viruses were capable of using both CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for viral entry, and the consensus V3 loop sequences from the SI viruses displayed a high net charge compared to those of NSI viruses. While those on treatment had reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease mutations, there was no clear association between RT and protease drug resistance mutations and coreceptor tropism. These results suggest that CXCR4-tropic viruses are present within the quasispecies of patients infected with subtype C virus and that antiretroviral treatment may create an environment for the emergence of CXCR4 tropism.Journal of Virology 08/2003; 77(13):7682-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor