Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Is a Major Hepatic Lipase That Regulates Triacylglycerol Turnover and Fatty Acid Signaling and Partitioning

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-1038, USA.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 01/2011; 53(1):116-26. DOI: 10.1002/hep.24006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite advances in our understanding of the ways in which nutrient oversupply and triacylglycerol (TAG) anabolism contribute to hepatic steatosis, little is known about the lipases responsible for regulating hepatic TAG turnover. Recent studies have identified adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) as a major lipase in adipose tissue, although its role in the liver is largely unknown. Thus, we tested the contribution of ATGL to hepatic lipid metabolism and signaling. Adenovirus-mediated knockdown of hepatic ATGL resulted in steatosis in mice and decreased hydrolysis of TAG in primary hepatocyte cultures and in vitro assays. In addition to altering TAG hydrolysis, ATGL was shown to play a significant role in partitioning hydrolyzed fatty acids between metabolic pathways. Although ATGL gain and loss of function did not alter hepatic TAG secretion, fatty acid oxidation was increased by ATGL overexpression and decreased by ATGL knockdown. The effects on fatty acid oxidation coincided with decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) and its target genes in mice with suppressed hepatic ATGL expression. However, PPAR-α agonism was unable to normalize the effects of ATGL knockdown on PPAR-α target gene expression, and this suggests that ATGL influences PPAR-α activity independently of ligand-induced activation. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data show that ATGL is a major hepatic TAG lipase that plays an integral role in fatty acid partitioning and signaling to control energy metabolism.

Download full-text


Available from: Andrew S Greenberg, Dec 20, 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) is a transcription factor that plays a major role in metabolic regulation. This review addresses the functional role of PPARα in intermediary metabolism and provides a detailed overview of metabolic genes targeted by PPARα, with a focus on liver. A distinction is made between the impact of PPARα on metabolism upon physiological, pharmacological, and nutritional activation. Low and high throughput gene expression analyses have allowed the creation of a comprehensive map illustrating the role of PPARα as master regulator of lipid metabolism via regulation of numerous genes. The map puts PPARα at the center of a regulatory hub impacting fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation, intracellular fatty acid binding, mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, triglyceride turnover, lipid droplet biology, gluconeogenesis, and bile synthesis/secretion. In addition, PPARα governs the expression of several secreted proteins that exert local and endocrine functions.
    07/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1016/j.molmet.2014.02.002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pigment epithelium-derived factor is well known as a secreted glycoprotein with multiple functions, such as anti-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-tumor activities. However, its intracellular role remains unknown. The present study was performed to demonstrate the intracellular function of pigment epithelium-derived factor on triglyceride degradation. Hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased at the early stage and subsequently decreased after 16 weeks in high-fat-diet-fed mice compared to those in chow-fed mice. Similarly, oleic acid led to long-term downregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in HepG2 cells. Endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor was an intracellular protein with cytoplasmic distribution in hepatocytes by immunostaining. Exogenous FITC-labeled pigment epithelium-derived factor could be absorbed into hepatocytes. Both signal peptide deletion and full-length pigment epithelium-derived factor transfection HeLa cells and hepatocytes promoted triglyceride degradation. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor co-immunoprecipitated with adipose triglyceride lipase and promoted triglyceride degradation in an adipose triglyceride lipase-dependent manner. Additionally, pigment epithelium-derived factor bound to the C-terminal of adipose triglyceride lipase (aa268-504) and adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 complex simultaneously, which facilitated adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 translocation onto lipid droplet using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor in hepatocytes diminished triglyceride degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor was decreased in obese mice accompanied with hepatic steatosis. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to and facilitates adipose triglyceride lipase translocation onto lipid droplet, which promotes triglyceride degradation. These findings suggest that a decreased level of hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor may contribute to hepatic steatosis in obesity.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2013.07.008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent reports demonstrated that 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T(2)) was able to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we investigated how the rat liver responds to HFD and T(2) treatment by assessing the transcription profiles of some genes involved in the pathways of lipid metabolism: oxidation, storage and secretion. The mRNA levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ), and of their target enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, the expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase involved in lipid mobilisation, of the main PAT proteins acting in lipid droplet (LD) turnover, and of apoprotein B (apo B), the major protein component of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) were analysed. Overall, our data demonstrated that T(2) administration to HFD rats counteracts most of the hepatic transcriptional changes that occurred in response to the excess exogenous fat. In particular, our results suggest that T(2) may prevent the pathways leading to lipid storage in LDs, promote the processes of lipid mobilisation from LDs and secretion as VLDL, in addition to the stimulation of pathways of lipid oxidation. In conclusion, our findings might give an insight into the mechanisms underlying the anti-steatotic ability of T(2) and help to define the potential therapeutic role of T(2) for preventing or treating liver steatosis.
    Journal of Endocrinology 11/2011; 212(2):149-58. DOI:10.1530/JOE-11-0288