Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

First Cardiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
International Journal of Biometeorology (Impact Factor: 3.25). 10/2010; 55(5):657-63. DOI: 10.1007/s00484-010-0380-7
Source: PubMed


Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO(2) baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO(2) hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO(2) baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

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    • "Decrease in tympanic temperature; increase in cutaneous blood flow at immersed site was significantly greater in CO2-WI compared with fresh WI.[18] The three main effects of CO2 enriched WI are decline in core temperature, increase in cutaneous blood flow, and elevation of score on thermal sensation, which were analyzed.[19] "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on "effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy" on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body.
    North American Journal of Medical Sciences 05/2014; 6(5):199-209. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.132935
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    • "Balneotherapy can be administered at spas with a special resort environment and atmosphere, or elsewhere (Bender et al. 2005). It is an ancient, traditional treatment modality used in Europe and in other parts of the world (Balint et al. 1993; Konrad 1994) for musculoskeletal (Kamioka et al. 2010), gynaecological (Zámbó et al. 2008), and dermatological (Brockow et al. 2007) conditions (psoriasis in particular), peripheral vascular disease (Pagourelias et al. 2011), and many other disorders (Dubois et al. 2010; Fabry et al. 2009). Thermal mineral waters have been used empirically for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Balneotherapy is appreciated as a traditional treatment modality in medicine. Hungary is rich in thermal mineral waters. Balneotherapy has been in extensive use for centuries and its effects have been studied in detail. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials conducted with Hungarian thermal mineral waters, the findings of which have been published by Hungarian authors in English. The 122 studies identified in different databases include 18 clinical trials. Five of these evaluated the effect of hydro- and balneotherapy on chronic low back pain, four on osteoarthritis of the knee, and two on osteoarthritis of the hand. One of the remaining seven trials evaluated balneotherapy in chronic inflammatory pelvic diseases, while six studies explored its effect on various laboratory parameters. Out of the 18 studies, 9 met the predefined criteria for meta-analysis. The results confirmed the beneficial effect of balneotherapy on pain with weight bearing and at rest in patients with degenerative joint and spinal diseases. A similar effect has been found in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The review also revealed that balneotherapy has some beneficial effects on antioxidant status, and on metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Based on the results, we conclude that balneotherapy with Hungarian thermal-mineral waters is an effective remedy for lower back pain, as well as for knee and hand osteoarthritis.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 05/2013; 58(3). DOI:10.1007/s00484-013-0667-6 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm-water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO(2)) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO(2) (both P < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than those at baseline even 30 minutes after WWB with tap water (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels showed a slight, but not significant, increase both immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB with tap water or ISCO(2). Some parameters, such as serum total cholesterol, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO(2) (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO(2) (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 10/2011; 56(5):933-9. DOI:10.1007/s00484-011-0502-x · 3.25 Impact Factor
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