Hepatitis B transmission event in an English prison and the importance of immunization
ABSTRACT Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for all sentenced prisoners and all new entrants to prison in the UK. In November 2008, acute hepatitis B was confirmed serologically in a 27-year-old man (Case 1) who had been incarcerated since February 2007. The cell mate of Case 1, a 26-year-old man was an established HBV carrier. A home-made tattoo gun was confiscated from their prison cell. In the absence of other clearly identifiable risk behaviours, tattooing was deemed to be a possible route of HBV transmission. Transmission of hepatitis B in a prison setting is a real concern and this report highlights the importance of immunizing prisoners against hepatitis B and should encourage health professionals to communicate the benefits of immunization to inmates to increase vaccine uptake.
- SourceAvailable from: Victor-Guillermo SequeraExpert Review of Vaccines 05/2013; 12(5):469-71. DOI:10.1586/erv.13.28 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) is elevated within prison populations, yet diagnosis in prisons remains low. Dried blood spot testing (DBST) is a simple procedure for the detection of HCV antibodies; its impact on testing in the prison context is unknown. Methods: We carried out a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized control trial of DBST for HCV among prisoners within five male prisons and one female prison. Each prison was a separate cluster. The order in which the intervention (training in use of DBST for HCV testing and logistic support) was introduced was randomized across clusters. The outcome measure was the HCV testing rate by prison. Imputation analysis was carried out to account for missing data. Planned and actual intervention times differed in some prisons; data were thus analysed by intention to treat (ITT) and by observed step times. Results: There was insufficient evidence of an effect of the intervention on testing rate using either the ITT intervention time (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.68-1.03; P = 0.088) or using the actual intervention time (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71-1.06; P = 0.153). This was confirmed by the pooled results of five imputed data sets. Conclusions: DBST as a stand-alone intervention was insufficient to increase HCV diagnosis within the UK prison setting. Factors such as staff training and allocation of staff time for regular clinics are key to improving service delivery. We demonstrate that prisons can conduct rigorous studies of new interventions, but data collection can be problematic. Trial registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN number ISRCTN05628482).The European Journal of Public Health 07/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1093/eurpub/cku096 · 2.59 Impact Factor