Burkhardt GE, Gifford SM, Propper BW, et al. The impact of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus Scrofa) model of extremity vascular injury

San Antonio Military Medicine Center Consortium, Wilford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center, the 59th Clinical Research Squadron, and Genesis Concepts & Consultants (under USAF Contract No: FA7014-09-D-0008), Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, TX, USA.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (Impact Factor: 3.02). 10/2010; 53(1):165-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2010.07.012
Source: PubMed


Fig 1. Experimental design. Central access via the right carotid artery and jugular vein for hemodynamic monitoring and resuscitation was established. Following retroperitoneal exposure of the right external iliac artery, a standardized arteriotomy was created, and the vessel was occluded for 0 (Control), 1 (1HR), 3 (3HR), or 6 (6HR) hours before reconstruction via patch angioplasty. Remaining groups underwent excision of a 3-cm segment of the external iliac artery (Ligation) as shown in the postprocedure arteriogram or exposure of the external iliac artery without intervention (Sham).

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    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1983; 06/1983
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    ABSTRACT: In order to advance beyond basic statistical limb salvage to improved functional or quality limb salvage, a better understanding of the ischemic threshold of the limb is required. To date, models of extremity ischemia and reperfusion involve small animals and few include survival with physiologic measures of nerve and muscle recovery. In addition, the effect of hemorrhagic shock on the ischemic threshold of the extremity is unknown. This study characterized the effect of class III hemorrhagic shock on the ischemic threshold of the extremity in a large-animal model of neuromuscular recovery. Yorkshire/Landrace-cross swine (weight, 70-90 kg) were randomized to iliac artery repair either immediately or at 1, 3, or 6 hours after vessel loop occlusion and arteriotomy. A fifth group underwent excision of the arterial segment without repair to represent ligation. Class III shock was created by removing 35% of total blood volume using a variable rate model. Animals were monitored for 14 days to serially collect markers of functional recovery. Animals with ≤1 hour ischemia (control) had clinically normal limb function by the end of the 2-week observation period, with minimal muscle and nerve changes on histology. Separate analysis of contralateral, nonexperimental limbs revealed normal histology and function. After 3 hours of ischemia, functional recovery was impaired, with moderate-to-severe degeneration of nerve and muscle noted on histology. Animals undergoing 6 hours of ischemia or ligation had minimal electromyelography response and severe systemic inflammation, which correlated with severe muscle and nerve degeneration. Concurrent class III hemorrhagic shock was associated with a decrement in neuromuscular recovery across all groups but was greatest in groups undergoing ≥3 hours of extremity ischemia (P < .01). This study demonstrates the feasibility of combined hemorrhagic shock and extremity ischemia-reperfusion in a large-animal survival model. The presence of hemorrhagic shock compounds the effect of extremity ischemia, reducing the ischemic threshold of the limb to <3 hours. Strategies to improve functional salvage after extremity vascular injury in the setting of shock should include attempts at restoration of flow ≤60 minutes.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 04/2011; 53(4):1052-62; discussion 1062. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.10.104 · 3.02 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of trauma 05/2011; 70(5):1291-3. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182178994 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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