In children with loss of control (LOC) over eating, recent research has revealed evidence for distinct personality features, such as more impulsivity. The aim of this study was to assess parent- and child-report personality profiles in children with and without LOC over eating and to relate these profiles to general and eating-disorder psychopathology.
A total of 120 children (60 with LOC over eating; 68 girls) aged 8 to 13 years were recruited from the community. Clinical interview, self-report, and parent-report questionnaires were administered to assess personality as well as both general and eating-disorder psychopathology.
The group with LOC over eating showed lower self-directedness and cooperativeness compared to the group without LOC. The children with LOC were significantly more impulsive. Personality dimensions were significantly correlated with greater general but not eating-disorder psychopathology and frequency of LOC over eating.
A distinct pattern of personality traits in children with LOC over eating was found that is partly in line with research on binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity in adulthood. The findings suggest that longitudinal studies should examine whether certain patterns of personality in children with LOC over eating account for differences in psychopathology later in life.
"Weight-related teasing and a negative body image were closely linked with greater binge eating in youth [21-23]. Further, binge eating emerges in the context of increased impulsivity, irregular meal patterns, and interpersonal problems such as dysfunctional family interactions [24-27]. These results suggest that patterns of non-normative eating behavior, difficulties in regulating negative emotional states, a negative body image, and interpersonal problems are important targets of intervention. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder -- the gold standard treatment for adults with binge eating disorder.Methods/design: In a single-center efficacy trial, 60 12- to 20-year-old adolescents meeting diagnostic criteria of binge eating disorder (full-syndrome or subthreshold) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th or 5th Edition, will be centrally randomized to 4 months of cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 30) or a waiting-list control condition (n = 30). Using an observer-blind design, patients are assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after the end of treatment. In 20 individual outpatient sessions, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents focuses on eating behavior, body image, and stress; parents receive psychoeducation on these topics. Primary endpoint is the number of episodes with binge eating over the previous 28 days at post-treatment using a state-of-the art clinical interview. Secondary outcome measures address the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, mental comorbidity, self-esteem, quality of life, and body weight.
This trial will allow us to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent binge eating disorder, to determine cost-effectiveness, and to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment will help to prevent excessive weight gain. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results from this trial will enhance availability of evidence-based treatment of adolescent binge eating disorder.Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000542.
"Our study also confirms more impulsive and inconsistent response patterns for treatment-seeking patients with BN in the neuropsychological test battery. Some previous neuropsychological studies on these patients showed similar impulsive behaviors , . However, previous findings were mixed and conclusions unclear , ; thus our study supports further evidence of neuropsychological deficits in BN. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the contribution of impulsivity, inattention and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa (BN). In particular, their specific contribution to disordered eating symptoms and whether they have additive effects to the general psychopathological burden remains unclear.
Fifty-seven female patients seeking treatment for BN and 40 healthy controls completed diagnostic questionnaires and interviews that investigated: a) ADHD, b) impulsivity, c) eating disorders and d) general psychopathology. Attentional processes and impulsivity were assessed by a comprehensive computer-based neuropsychological battery.
Twenty-one percent of patients with BN met the clinical cut-off for previous childhood ADHD compared to 2.5% of healthy controls. Adult ADHD according to DSM IV was also more prevalent in patients with BN, with an odds ratio of 4.2. Patients with BN and previous childhood ADHD were more impulsive and inattentive than patients with BN alone. These patients also displayed more severely disordered eating patterns and more general psychopathological symptoms compared with those without ADHD. Severity of eating disorder symptoms was better explained by inattentiveness than by either impulsivity or hyperactivity.
Our data suggest an elevated rate of former childhood and current ADHD-symptoms in treatment-seeking patients with BN. Stronger impulsivity and inattention associated with more severe neuropsychological deficits and eating disorder symptoms indicate an additive risk that is clinically relevant for these patients. Thus, clinicians should identify comorbid patients who might profit from additional ADHD-specific treatments.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63891. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063891 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Psychobiological perspectives of temperament and character have been most widely used to study the relationships among personality, health, and psychopathology [4-6]. Extensive research shows that individual differences in temperament and personality traits in childhood and adolescence are strongly predictive of many domains of functioning, including impulse control  , physical agility   , emotional self-regulation    , intellectual interests and problem solving  , and spirituality  , as well as overall well-being   , social development , and risk for psychiatric disorders    . Personality traits influence many components of attention, self-control, and the ambition to achieve longterm goals   , thereby predicting academic achievement throughout the lifespan even more strongly than measures of working memory or intelligence     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality traits related to persistence and self-regulation of long-term goals can predict academic performance as well or better than measures of intelligence. The 5-factor model has been suggested to outperform some other personality tests in predicting academic performance, but it has not been compared to Cloninger's psychobiological model for this purpose. The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) in adolescents in Portugal, and second, to evaluate the comparative validity of age-appropriate versions of Cloninger's 7-factor psychobiological model, Costa and McCrae's five-factor NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and Cattell's 16-personality-factor inventory in predicting academic achievement. All dimensions of the Portuguese JTCI had moderate to strong internal consistency. The Cattell's sixteen-personality-factor and NEO inventories provided strong construct validity for the JTCI in students younger than 17 years and for the revised adult version (TCI-Revised) in those 17 years and older. High TCI Persistence predicted school grades regardless of age as much or more than intelligence. High TCI Harm Avoidance, high Self-Transcendence, and low TCI Novelty Seeking were additional predictors in students older than 17. The psychobiological model, as measured by the JTCI and TCI-Revised, performed as well or better than other measures of personality or intelligence in predicting academic achievement.
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