The bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination protects against tuberculosis (TB)-related meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis. While severe complications after BCG vaccination are relatively rare, different cutaneous reactions have been reported. We report a patient with a 7-mm erythematous nodule at a distance of 4 cm from the BCG injection site. Histopathologically, a necrotizing granulomatous reaction pattern was seen in the dermis. Although complementary stainings did not detect acid fast bacilli, we suspected the lesion was caused by the attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis from the vaccine. This specific complication is called BCG-itis in the literature. After the excisional biopsy, the lesion disappeared and further treatment was not necessary. In defining the best treatment for this boy, we discovered a lack of knowledge on BCG-related lesions and their subsequent treatment options in the literature. We will list existing literature on this topic and demonstrate that treatment of BCG-related complications is poorly defined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are known to cause pulmonary, extra-pulmonary, systemic/disseminated, and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. The erroneous detection of RGM that is based solely on microscopy, solid and liquid cultures, Bactec systems, and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may produce misleading results. Thus, inappropriate therapeutic measures may be used in dermatologic settings, leading to increased numbers of skin deformity cases or recurrent infections. Molecular tools such as the sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and hsp65 or PCR restriction enzyme analyses, and the alternate gene sequencing of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene, dnaJ, the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), secA, recA1, dnaK, and the 32-kDa protein gene have shown promising results in the detection of RGM species. PCR restriction enzyme analyses (PRA) work better than conventional methods at identifying species that are closely related. Recently introduced molecular tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), pyrosequencing, DNA chip technology, and Beacon probes-combined PCR probes have shown comparable results in the detection of various species of RGM. Closely related RGM species (e.g., Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus) must be clearly differentiated using accurate molecular techniques because their therapeutic responses are species-specific. Hence, this paper reviews the following aspects of RGM: (i) its sources, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, and concomitant fungal infections; (ii) the risks of misdiagnoses in the management of RGM infections in dermatological settings; (iii) the diagnoses and outcomes of treatment responses in common and uncommon infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; (iv) conventional versus current molecular methods for the detection of RGM; (v) the basic principles of a promising MALDI-TOF MS, sampling protocol for cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions and its potential for the precise differentiation of M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus; and (vi) improvements in RGM infection management as described in the recent 2011 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, including interpretation criteria of molecular methods and antimicrobial drug panels and their break points [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)], which have been highlighted for the initiation of antimicrobial therapy.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.1007/s10096-012-1766-8 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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