Improvement of resolution for brain coupled metabolites by optimized (1)H MRS at 7T.
ABSTRACT Resolution enhancement for glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and glutathione (GSH) in the human brain by TE-optimized point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) at 7 T is reported. Sub-TE dependences of the multiplets of Glu, Gln, GSH, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) at 2.2-2.6 ppm were investigated with density matrix simulations, incorporating three-dimensional volume localization. The numerical simulations indicated that the C4-proton multiplets can be completely separated with (TE(1), TE(2)) = (37, 63) ms, as a result of a narrowing of the multiplets and suppression of the NAA 2.5 ppm signal. Phantom experiments reproduced the signal yield and lineshape from simulations within experimental errors. In vivo tests of optimized PRESS were conducted on the prefrontal cortex of six healthy volunteers. In spectral fitting by LCModel, Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) of Glu, Gln and GSH were 2 ± 1, 5 ± 1 and 6 ± 2 (mean ± SD), respectively. To evaluate the performance of the optimized PRESS method under identical experimental conditions, stimulated-echo spectra were acquired with (TE, TM) = (14, 37) and (74, 68) ms. The CRLB of Glu was similar between PRESS and short-TE stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM), but the CRLBs of Gln and GSH were lower in PRESS than in both STEAM acquisitions.
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ABSTRACT: To date, there has been little investigation of the neurobiological basis of emotion processing abnormalities in psychiatric populations. We have previously discussed two neural systems: 1) a ventral system, including the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, ventral anterior cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex, for identification of the emotional significance of a stimulus, production of affective states, and automatic regulation of emotional responses; and 2) a dorsal system, including the hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex, for the effortful regulation of affective states and subsequent behavior. In this critical review, we have examined evidence from studies employing a variety of techniques for distinct patterns of structural and functional abnormalities in these neural systems in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. In each psychiatric disorder, the pattern of abnormalities may be associated with specific symptoms, including emotional flattening, anhedonia, and persecutory delusions in schizophrenia, prominent mood swings, emotional lability, and distractibility in bipolar disorder during depression and mania, and with depressed mood and anhedonia in major depressive disorder. We suggest that distinct patterns of structural and functional abnormalities in neural systems important for emotion processing are associated with specific symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar and major depressive disorder.Biological Psychiatry 10/2003; 54(5):515-28. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new single-voxel proton NMR spectrally-selective refocusing method for measuring glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the human brain in vivo at 3T is reported. Triple-resonance selective 180 degrees RF pulses with a bandwidth of 12 Hz were implemented within point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) for selective detection of Glu or Gln, and simultaneous acquisition of creatine singlets for use as a reference in phase correction. The carriers of the spectrally-selective 180 degrees pulses and the echo times (TEs) were optimized with both numerical and experimental analyses of the filtering performance, which enabled measurements of the target metabolites with negligible contamination from N-acetylaspartate and glutathione. The concentrations of Glu and Gln in the prefrontal cortex were estimated to be 9.7+/-0.5 and 3.0+/-0.7 mM (mean+/-SD, N=7), with reference to Cr at 8 mM.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 06/2006; 55(5):997-1005. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypofrontality is not a well-replicated finding in schizophrenia either at rest or under conditions of task activation. Studies comparing whole brain and frontal blood flow/metabolism in schizophrenic patients and normal controls were pooled. Voxel-based studies were also combined to examine the pattern of prefrontal activation in schizophrenia. Whole brain flow/metabolism was reduced in schizophrenia to only a small extent. Resting and activation frontal flow/metabolism were both reduced with a medium effect size. Duration of illness significantly moderated resting hypofrontality, but the moderating effects of neuroleptic treatment were consistent with an influence on global flow/metabolism only. Pooling of voxel-based studies did not suggest an abnormal pattern of activation in schizophrenia. Meta-analysis supports resting hypofrontality in schizophrenia. Task-activated hypofrontality is also supported, but there is little from voxel-based studies to suggest that this is associated with an altered pattern of regional functional architecture.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 11/2004; 110(4):243-56. · 4.86 Impact Factor