Cardiac arrest-induced regional blood–brain barrier breakdown, edema formation and brain pathology: a light and electron microscopic study on a new model for neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in porcine brain
ABSTRACT Brief cardiac arrest and survival is often associated with marked neurological alterations related to cognitive and sensory motor functions. However, detail studies using selective vulnerability of brain after cardiac arrest in animal models are still lacking. We examined selective vulnerability of five brain regions in our well-established cardiac arrest model in pigs. Using light and electron microscopic techniques in combinations with immunohistochemistry, we observed that 5, 30, 60 and 180 min after cardiac arrest results in progressive neuronal damage that was most marked in the thalamus followed by cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and the brain stem. The neuronal damages are largely evident in the areas showing leakage of serum albumin in the neuropil. Furthermore, a tight correlation was seen between neuronal damage and increase in brain water content and Na(+) indicating vasogenic edema formation after cardiac arrest. Damage to myelinated fibers and loss of myelin as seen using Luxol fast blue and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity is clearly evident in the brain areas exhibiting neuronal damage. Upregulation of GFAP positive astrocytes closely corresponds with neuronal damages in different brain areas after cardiac arrest. At the ultrastructural level, perivascular edema together with neuronal, glial and endothelia cell damages is frequent in the brain areas showing albumin leakage. Damage to both pre- and post-synaptic membrane is also common. Treatment with methylene blue, an antioxidant markedly reduced neuronal damage, leakage of albumin, overexpression of GFAP and damage to myelin following cardiac arrest. Taken together, these observations suggest that (a) cardiac arrest is capable to induce selective neuronal, glial and myelin damage in different parts of the pig brain, and (b) antioxidant methylene blue is capable to induce neuroprotection by reducing BBB disruption. These observations strongly suggest that the model could be used to explore new therapeutic agents to enhance neurorepair following cardiac arrest-induced brain damage for therapeutic purposes.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed CentralCritical care (London, England) 03/2014; 18(2):212. DOI:10.1186/cc13779
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of exogenous 80-p.p.m. H2S gas on BBB, brain water content, neurologic outcome, and survival rate after CA and CPR. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed CA induced in rats by ventricular fibrillation for 6 minutes. Results show that inhalation of 80-p.p.m. H2S significantly reduced the permeability of the BBB in both in the cortex and hippocampus at 24 hours after resuscitation. Hydrogen sulfide also lessened brain edema in the cortex and hippocampus, ameliorated neurologic outcome as evaluated by neurologic deficit score and tape removal test, and improved the 14-day survival rate. Hydrogen sulfide also attenuated CA and CPR-induced increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and increased the expression of angiogenin-1 (Ang-1). These results indicate that inhalation of 80-p.p.m. H2S immediately after CPR attenuated BBB permeability and brain edema, and improved neurologic outcome and 14-day survival of rats after CA. The therapeutic benefits of H2S could be associated with suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF expression and increased expression of Ang-1.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.223.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.223 · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods. In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. Results. During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Conclusion. Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/03009734.2015.1010665 · 1.71 Impact Factor