Upper gastrointestinal involvement, both gastric and duodenal, is known to occur in both Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the frequency and types of inflammation in upper gastrointestinal biopsies in patients with UC has not been well studied, especially in a controlled study.
Twenty-four esophageal, 59 gastric, and 40 duodenal biopsies from 69 UC patients were reviewed. These were compared with 35 esophageal, 66 gastric, and 46 duodenal biopsies from a control group of 97 consecutive patients of similar age and sex distribution. The pattern and extent of inflammation were noted in each biopsy.
There were 3 types of gastric inflammation that occurred more in UC patients than in controls, and the differences were statistically significant. The most common was an intense focal gastritis, present in 29% of UC gastric biospies, compared with 9% of controls. Twenty-two percent of UC patients had a basal mixed inflammation compared with 8% of controls, and 20% of the UC patients had superficial plasmacytosis compared with 6% of controls. There were no esophageal inflammations that occurred more commonly in UC than controls. Four UC patients and no controls had diffuse chronic duodenitis, also a statistically significant difference. All 4 UC-duodenitis patients were among the 10 with previous colectomies, and all 4 patients had pouchitis. Only 1 of the 4 UC-colectomy patients without duodenitis developed pouchitis.
Most UC patients have no upper gastrointestinal inflammation in biopsies, and most of the inflammations they have are not unique. The most common upper gastrointestinal inflammatory pattern in patients with UC is focal gastritis, followed by gastric basal mixed inflammation and superficial plasmacytosis. The one unique upper gastrointestinal inflammation in UC patients is diffuse chronic duodenitis, present in 10% of patients who had duodenal biopsies, and in 40% of UC patients who had colectomy and all of these patients had pouchitis. This association strongly suggests that diffuse chronic duodenitis in UC patients who have colectomy is a strong predictor of pouchitis.
"While UC is traditionally considered to be a disease of the colon, inflammation of the upper gastro-intestinal (GI) tract has been described in a small proportion of UC patients. Gastric findings in UC patients include superficial plasmacytosis, focal gastritis, and basal mixed inflammation . Duodenal pathology in UC includes diffuse chronic active duodenitis [31, 32] and intra-epithelial lymphocytosis, with or without partial villous atrophy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes diagnostic problems, challenges and advances in ulcerative colitis (UC). It emphasizes that, although histopathological examination plays a major role in the diagnosis and management of UC, it should always be interpreted in the context of clinical, endoscopic, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis requires knowledge of the classic morphological features of UC, as well as a number of atypical pathological presentations that may cause mis-classification of the disease process, either in resection or biopsy specimens. These atypical pathological presentations include rectal sparing and patchiness of disease at initial presentation of UC in pediatric patients or in the setting of medically treated UC, cecal or ascending colon inflammation in left-sided UC, and backwash ileitis in patients with severe ulcerative pancolitis. Loosely formed microgranulomas, with pale foamy histiocytes adjacent to a damaged crypt or eroded surface, should not be interpreted as evidence of Crohn's disease. Indeterminate colitis should only be used in colectomy specimens as a provisional pathological diagnosis. Patients with UC are at risk for the development of dysplasia and carcinoma; optimal outcomes in UC surveillance programs require familiarity with the diagnostic criteria and challenges relating to UC-associated dysplasia and malignancy. Colon biopsy from UC patients should always be evaluated for dysplasia based on cytological and architectural abnormalities. Accurate interpretation and classification of dysplasia in colon biopsy from UC patients as sporadic adenoma or UC-related dysplasia [flat, adenoma-like, or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM)] requires clinical and endoscopic correlation. Isolated polypoid dysplastic lesions are considered to be sporadic adenoma if occurring outside areas of histologically proven colitis, or adenoma-like dysplasia if occurring in the diseased segment. Recent data suggest that such lesions may be treated adequately by polypectomy in the absence of flat dysplasia in the patient. UC patients with DALM or flat high-grade dysplasia should be treated by colectomy because of the high probability of adenocarcinoma. The natural history of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is more controversial: while multifocal LGD, particularly if detected at the time of initial endoscopic examination, is treated with colectomy, unifocal flat LGD detected during surveillance may be managed by close follow-up with increased surveillance. The surveillance interval and treatment options for UC patients with dysplasia are reviewed in detail.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maguire A & Sheahan K (2012) Histopathology 60, 864–879 Pathology of oesophagitis
Endoscopic oesophageal biopsies are common in daily pathology practice. Inflammation and damage of the oesophageal mucosa is known as oesophagitis and is common worldwide. A variety of physical, chemical and infectious agents cause oesophagitis. The oesophagus has a limited range of responses to a wide variety of injuries, and so histopathological features of different diseases often overlap. The pathologist is reliant on the endoscopist for the ‘macroscopic description’ of the oesophagus. Access to the endoscopic images enhances the pathologist’s overall interpretation of the case. Correlating clinical, endoscopic and microscopic findings may be crucial in arriving at the correct diagnosis. In this review, we present clinicopathological descriptions of the major types of oesophagitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Etiologies for colonic inflammation and injury are numerous and may be the result of idiopathic, infectious, iatrogenic, and autoimmune processes. Colitides most likely to be encountered in clinical practice are those caused by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, ischaemia, radiation, diverticulosis, and medications. Additionally, collagenous and lymphocytic colitis are entities to be considered in the setting of a normal endoscopic exam. Although evaluation of specimens for inflammatory colon disorders can be challenging, the differential diagnosis can be narrowed if the histologic features are interpreted in the context of the endoscopic and clinical findings. This article aims to provide the reader with a review of the most commonly encountered inflammatory processes of the colon and to offer guidance to differentiate between entities bearing in mind that there is significant overlap between many of these disorders.
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