Metabolic syndromes and malignant transformation: where the twain shall meet.
ABSTRACT Recurrent somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes that result in the accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) have been identified in malignant gliomas and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the function of this metabolite in normal and malignant tissues remains uncertain. A report in the current issue of Science describes a germline IDH2 mutation in a subset of patients with a rare metabolic disorder--D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria-that is similar to mutations seen in cancer patients. These observations further elucidate the effects of IDH mutations on normal and malignant cells.
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ABSTRACT: Despite an increased emphasis on developing new therapies for malignant gliomas, they remain among the most intractable tumors faced today as they demonstrate a remarkable ability to evade current treatment strategies. Numerous candidate treatments fail at late stages, often after showing promising preclinical results. This disconnect highlights the continued need for improved animal models of glioma, which can be used to both screen potential targets and authentically recapitulate the human condition. This review examines recent developments in the animal modeling of glioma, from more established rat models to intriguing new systems using Drosophila and zebrafish that set the stage for higher throughput studies of potentially useful targets. It also addresses the versatility of mouse modeling using newly developed techniques recreating human protocols and sophisticated genetically engineered approaches that aim to characterize the biology of gliomagenesis. The use of these and future models will elucidate both new targets and effective combination therapies that will impact on disease management.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2014; 121:261-330. · 4.26 Impact Factor