Modification of a hybrid technique for closure of muscular ventricular septal defects in a pig model.
ABSTRACT Closure of muscular ventricular septal defects (mVSDs) beyond the moderator band is still a challenge for both surgeons and interventional cardiologists. We evaluated a new technique in a pig model for hybrid patch closure of mVSDs via 2 stab wound incisions in the left ventricle (LV) without cardiopulmonary bypass.
Ten pigs underwent left anterolateral thoracotomy to expose the LV. mVSDs were created via a stab wound incision of the lateral wall of the LV under epicardial echocardiographic control. The patch system was forwarded through a second puncture of the LV apex and positioned in front of the mVSD. The stapler for fixation of the patch was introduced through the same incision as used for VSD creation. Finally, the patch was attached to the septum with nitinol anchors under epicardial echocardiographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Finally, detailed echocardiographic evaluation was done. All hearts were explanted, and macroscopic evaluation was done, either immediately after patch implantation (n = 4) or after 90 days (n = 6).
mVSD creation was successful in all pigs. Closure of mVSDs was successful in 8 of 10 pigs, as confirmed by echocardiography, hemodynamic measurements, and macroscopic examination. One patch embolized through the mVSD into the pulmonary artery because of insecure fixation, and 1 animal died during the procedure because of ventricular fibrillation. The final echocardiographic evaluation revealed good LV function and no damage to the valves.
Closure of mVSDs can be successfully performed in a hybrid technique on the beating heart with 2 stab wound incisions; however, further modifications need to be developed before clinical application.
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ABSTRACT: In a prospective study, an elderly group of patients (n = 63, 47 male, 16 female, age 40-65 years) was examined before and after open-heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: postoperatively, 19 patients (30%) showed no clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms, whereas in 35 patients (56%) mild or transient neurological signs and in nine (14%) severe neurological complications were found. The postoperative EEG changes were characterized by a slight delta-theta increase, an alpha decrease and a significant slowing of the dominant frequency from 9.7 to 9.3 Hz. In brainstem auditory evoked potentials no changes were found, and in somatosensory evoked potentials (median nerve) the latency of the early cortical component, N20, increased. Cardiovascular reflexes showed increased changes, similar to those found in autonomic neuropathies. In the neuropsychological test battery, the Visual retention test (Benton) and the Rorschach test showed slight postoperative improvement, whereas other psychometric variables (flicker fusion frequency, reaction time) did not change. Despite an improved operative technique some minor clinical and neurophysiological disturbances of the central nervous system remain. However, specific pre- or peri-operative risk factors for these postoperative disturbances or complications could not be identified.European Heart Journal 08/1993; 14(7):885-90. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the results of closure of muscular ventricular septal defects through a left thoracotomy. Records of 23 children operated consecutively between 1972 and 1990 were studied. Age of patients was 2.8 +/- 3 years (2 months-10 years), weight 8.9 +/- 5.7 kg (2.6-22 kg). Ten patients (43%) had undergone one and 4 patients (17%) two previous cardiac operations. Late follow-up was obtained from direct examination of patients or from reports of their referring physicians. Bypass time was 89 +/- 28 min (66-167 min). The aorta was cross-clamped for 44 +/- 15 min (21-66 min). Until 1977 operations were performed with moderate hypothermia and intermittent aortic cross-clamping. After 1978 deep hypothermia (20-25 degrees C) and cold crystalloid cardioplegia was used. Ventricular septal defects not accessible from other approaches were closed through a small fish-mouth incision in the apex of the left ventricle. Patients' data were sampled and stored in a computerised database. Risk factors were evaluated by stepwise logistic regression. Four patients died in the hospital (17%); two died later. Two required reoperation for residual/recurrent defects. All patients, except two from abroad, were available for follow-up, which ranged from 36 months to 18 years (mean 11.3 years). All were in NYHA class I. Only two risk factors were identified: the number of ventricular septal defects (P < 0.05) and associated atrial septal defect (P < 0.02). Early echocardiographic evaluation showed good LV size and function in all except one patient, who had a perioperative septal infarction. Late echocardiography performed in six patients demonstrated normal LV shortening without evidence of regional wall abnormality. Left ventriculotomy is a useful approach for closure of low muscular ventricular septal defects in selected patients.European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 02/1996; 10(8):595-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The management of patients with multiple ventricular septal defects remains controversial. Primary closure, interventional catheter techniques, and palliative surgery all may have a role, and specific management guidelines remain undefined. We reviewed the records of all 33 patients with multiple ventricular septal defects undergoing repair between January 1988 and October 1996. Pulmonary artery hypertension was present in 21 patients (group 1), and pulmonary stenosis was present in the remaining 12 (group 2). Closure was accomplished from a right atriotomy alone in most patients, although an apical left ventriculotomy was used for apical defects. Among group 1 patients, the mean age at repair was 5.9 +/- 0.9 months. Major associated anomalies included coarctation (n = 6), straddling tricuspid valve (n = 1), and critical aortic stenosis (n = 1). Reoperation was performed in two patients for residual ventricular septal defects. Among group 2 patients, the mean age at repair was 6.6 +/- 3.2 years. Major associated anomalies included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 2), pulmonary stenosis (n = 4), double-outlet right ventricle with hypoplastic left ventricle (n = 1), and isolated left ventricular hypoplasia (n = 1). Three required reoperation for residual ventricular septal defect. There were no early or late deaths, no episodes of heart block, and no significant residual ventricular septal defects among group 1 patients. All group 1 patients remain free of significant residual cardiovascular conditions at a mean of 23.4 +/- 5.1 months. Among group 2 patients, there was one early death in a patient with double-outlet right ventricle and left ventricular hypoplasia. Complete heart block occurred in two patients and one required late mitral valve replacement. There were no late deaths, seven remain alive without significant residual defects at a mean of 36.2 +/- 8.0 months, and two required transplantation for left ventricular failure. Primary repair for infants with multiple ventricular septal defects is associated with good late outcomes. The right atrial approach is satisfactory for most muscular defects, although limited apical left ventriculotomy was used for apical defects. Pulmonary artery banding should be limited to patients with complex associated defects.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 05/1998; 115(4):848-56. · 3.53 Impact Factor