Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Pain behaviors provide meaningful information about adolescents in chronic pain, enhancing their verbal report of pain intensity with information about the global pain experience. Caregivers likely consider these expressions when making judgments about their adolescents' medical or emotional needs. Current validated measures of pain behavior target acute or procedural pain and young or non-verbal children, while observation systems may be too cumbersome for clinical practice. The objective of this research was to design and evaluate the Adolescent Pain Behavior Questionnaire (APBQ), a parent-report measure of adolescent (11-19 years) pain expressions. This paper provides preliminary results on reliability and validity of the APBQ. Parent-adolescent dyads (N=138) seen in a multidisciplinary pain management clinic completed the APBQ and questionnaires assessing pain characteristics, quality of life, functional disability, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing. Principal components analysis of the APBQ supported a single component structure. The final APBQ scale contained 23 items with high internal consistency (α=0.93). No relationship was found between parent-reported pain behaviors and adolescent-reported pain intensity. However, significant correlations were found between parent-reported pain behaviors and parent- and adolescent-reported functional disability, pain catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life. The assessment of pain behaviors provides qualitatively different information than solely recording pain intensity and disability. It has clinical utility for use in behavioral treatments seeking to reduce disability, poor coping, and distress.
"With these measures, researchers have begun to examine effects that the catastrophizing cognitions of significant others may have on patient outcomes. Relatively recent studies have demonstrated that parents' catastrophic cognitions about their child's pain are associated with adverse outcomes in the child such as increased pain intensity, increased (parent-perceived) pain behavior, increased pain catastrophizing , increased depressive symptomatology, increased disability , and decreased quality of life    . Parents' catastrophizing about their child's pain has also been associated with the parents' emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techniques and bootstrapping. Results supported a model treating parent-reported child pain behavior as the predictor, parental catastrophizing as the mediator, and parental protective responses as the outcome. Parent-reported child pain behavior predicted parental protective responses and this association was mediated by parental catastrophizing about child pain: indirect effect (SE) = 2.08 (0.56); 95% CI = 1.09, 3.30. The proportion of the total effect mediated was 68%. Findings suggest that interventions designed to modify maladaptive parental responses to children's pain behaviors should assess, as well as target, parental catastrophizing cognitions about their child's pain.
Pain Research and Treatment 01/2014; 2014(8):751097. DOI:10.1155/2014/751097
"How children behave when they are in pain is influenced by how parents respond to their pain   . Parental responses may vary from ignoring and discouraging to protecting and comforting   . Although the efficacy of any particular parental strategy should be understood in its particular context, a general finding has emerged that parental attention to pain, typically operationalized as solicitousness, overprotectiveness, or reassurance, has a negative effect on child coping      . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How parents respond to their child in pain is critically important to how both parent and child attempt to cope with pain. We examined the influence of parental catastrophic thinking about child pain on their prioritization for pain control. Using a vignette methodology, parents reported, in response to different pain scenarios, on their imagined motivation for 2 competing goals: to control their child's pain (ie, pain control) or to encourage their child's participation in daily activities (ie, activity engagement). The effects of parent gender, pain intensity, and duration on parental goal priority were also explored. Findings indicated that higher levels of parental catastrophic thoughts were associated with the parents prioritizing child pain control over activity engagement. This effect was significantly moderated by pain duration. Specifically, pain control was more of a priority for those high in catastrophic thinking when the pain was more acute. In contrast, parental catastrophic thoughts had no effect on the pain control strategy favored by parents in situations with longer-lasting pain. Furthermore, independently of parental catastrophic thoughts, heightened priority for pain control was observed in highly intense and chronic pain situations. Moreover, in highly intense pain, priority for pain control was stronger for mothers compared with fathers. Theoretical and clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined existing communal and operant accounts of children's pain behavior by looking at the impact of parental presence and parental attention upon children's pain expression as a function of child pain catastrophizing. Participants were 38 school children and 1 of their parents. Children completed a cold pressor pain task (CPT) twice, first when told that no one was observing (alone condition) and subsequently when told that they were being observed by their parent (parent-present condition). A 3-minute parent-child interaction occurred between the 2 CPT immersions, allowing measurement of parental attention to their child's pain (ie, parental pain-attending talk vs non-pain-attending talk). Findings showed that child pain catastrophizing moderated the impact of parental presence upon facial displays of pain. Specifically, low-catastrophizing children expressed more pain in the presence of their parent, whereas high-catastrophizing children showed equally pronounced pain expression when alone or in the presence of a parent. Furthermore, children's catastrophizing moderated the impact of parental attention upon facial displays and self-reports of pain; higher levels of parental nonpain talk were associated with increased facial expression and self-reports of pain among high-catastrophizing children; for low-catastrophizing children, facial and self-report of pain was independent of parental attention to pain. The findings are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms that may drive and maintain pain expression in high-catastrophizing children, as well as potential limitations of traditional theories in explaining pediatric pain expression.
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