The role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD) is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and GD in Iranian patients. A case-control hospital-based study was carried out on 107 GD patients and 140 healthy controls. Cytokine typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) assay. The allele and genotype frequencies of the following cytokine genes were determined: TNF-α (-308A/G, -238A/G), IL-2 (-330T/G, +166G/T), IL-6 (-174C/G, A/G nt565), IL-12 (-1188A/C), and IFN-γ (UTR 5644A/T). The following alleles and genotypes were significantly overrepresented in patients: TNF-α -308A allele (P < 0.01) and AA genotype (P < 0.05), IL-2 -330G allele (P < 0.01) and GG genotype (P < 0.01), IL-6 -174C allele (P < 0.01) and CC genotype (P < 0.01), IL-12 -1188C allele (P < 0.01) and CC genotype (P < 0.01), IFN-γ UTR5644T allele (P < 0.01) and TT genotype (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to show a significant association between GD and IL-2 -330G, IL-12 -1188C, and IFN-γ UTR 5644T alleles. Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphism in pro-inflammatory cytokines might be involved in predisposition to GD.
"To date, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL12B have been associated with various immune dysregulations such as systemic lupus erythematosus , type 1 diabetes , psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis , and GD . Although the SNPs and expression of IL12B may be associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially GD and GO in Western male populations [26,27], a genetic association between IL12B and GO in oriental populations has not been identified . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Interleukin 12B (IL12B) gene polymorphisms have been linked to several inflammatory diseases, but their role in the development of Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in Graves disease (GD) patients is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the disease association of IL12B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
A Taiwan Chinese population comprising 200 GD patients with GO and 271 GD patients without GO was genotyped using an allele-specific extension and ligation method. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was estimated using the chi-square test. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between GD patients with and without GO using the chi-square test.
The genotype and allele frequencies of examined SNPs did not differ between GD patients with and without GO. Although the genotype distribution remained nonsignificant in the sex-stratified analyses, the frequency of the T allele at SNP rs1003199 was significantly higher in patients with GO in the male cohort (P = 6.00 × 10-3). In addition, haplotypes of IL12B may be used to predict the risk of GO (P = 1.70 × 10-2); however, we could not prove the statistical significance of analysis after applying the Bonferroni correction.
Our results provide new information that the examined IL12B gene polymorphisms may be associated with susceptibility to GO in the Taiwan Chinese population in a sex-specific manner. This conclusion requires further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graves' disease (GD) involves auto-immunity against thyroid cell antigens, but the reasons for the induction of auto-immunity are uncertain. We wished to investigate the role of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The model was generated by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the autoantigen thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (Ad-TSHR289). The frequencies of splenic Th17 and Treg were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin-17(IL-17), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), and orphan retinoic acid nuclear receptor (RORγt) mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T lymphocyte was significantly reduced in the Ad-TSHR289 group compared with the Ad-control (P < 0.05). mRNA level for Foxp3 was less abundant in Ad-TSHR289 group compared with Ad-control (P < 0.05). However, CD4(+)IL-17(+) T-cell subpopulation and expression of RORγt mRNA did not differ significantly between Ad-TSHR289 and Ad-control groups (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, in Ad-TSHR289 group, a profound increase in the Th17/Treg ratios was found. The present study demonstrates that Th17 is not involved in promoting Graves' hyperthyroidism, while Treg and the ratio of Th17/Treg might play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves' hyperthyroidism.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine 05/2011; 12(1):39-46. DOI:10.1007/s10238-011-0137-6 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic traits that result in autoimmune diseases represent complicating factors in explicating the molecular and cellular elements of autoimmune responses and how these responses can be overcome or manipulated. This article focuses on the major non-major histocompatibility complex genes that have been found to be linked to autoimmune diseases. A given gene may associate with a number of autoimmune diseases and, conversely, a given disease may link to a number of common autoimmune disease (AD) genes. Collaboration and interaction among genes and the number of diseases that develop and the extensive risk factors shared among ADs further complicate the outcome. This article describes the various relationships between gene regions associated with multiple ADs and the complexity of those relationships.
Critical Reviews in Immunology 01/2012; 32(3):193-285. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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