Blood mercury concentration and related factors in an urban coastal area in Korea.
ABSTRACT This study was carried out for the purpose of evaluating the blood mercury concentration of the residents of Busan, Korea, as well as the relationship between the mercury concentration and the pattern of fish consumption along with other epidemiological factors.
Two hundred ninety-three subjects (147 men and 146 women), who were aged 40 years or more, were recruited into this study between June and October 2009. The mean age of the subjects was 54.3 years (with a range of 40-70 years). Mercury concentrations in blood samples were measured using a gold-amalgam collection method.
The geometric mean concentration of mercury in the total subjects was 8.63 µg/L [range: 1.48~45.71 µg/L]. The blood mercury concentration of the men (9.55 µg/L) was significantly higher than that of the women (7.76 µg/L). The blood mercury concentration of those who eat fish more than 4 times per week was higher than others, and was statistically significant (male p = 0.0019, female p = 0.0002). According to the multiple analysis, the blood mercury concentration was significantly affected by the consumed fish but other epidemiological factors were not related.
It was found that the subjects who have consumed a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury concentration. It appears that fish consumption can influence blood mercury concentration. Therefore, guidelines for fish consumption that will decrease blood mercury concentration might be necessary in Korea.
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ABSTRACT: Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved.BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):527. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-527 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals.Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 57(1):88-97. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000307 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: This study was carried out for the purpose of comprehensively evaluating the mercury exposure level of residents in several areas and the correlation between hair mercury concentration and blood mercury concentration. Method: One thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were sampled from 30 sites using random assignment sampling. We performed a questionnaire survey and measured the level of total mercury in hair and blood samples from all subjects. Results: The geometric mean concentrations of hair and blood mercury in all subjects were 1.27 mg/kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-1.32 mg/kg] and 5.24 [95% CI: 5.07-5.41 ], respectively. Male (1.56 mg/kg in hair, 6.00 in blood) was significantly higher than that of female (1.03 mg/kg in hair, 4.56 in blood), and the concentrations were elevated as age increased up to the 50s. Education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and using of pesticides were also shown to influence mercury concentrations in hair and blood. The ratio of hair/ blood mercury concentration was 261.3. The total mercury concentration in hair was identified to be significantly related with total mercury concentration in blood (r=0.814, p04/2013; 39(2). DOI:10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.2.117