Multi-tissue, selective PPARγ modulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolic pathways in obese rats.
ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligands, including the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione drugs, transcriptionally regulate hundreds of genes. Little is known about the relationship between PPARγ ligand-specific modulation of cellular mechanisms and insulin sensitization. We characterized the insulin sensitivity and multitissue gene expression profiles of lean and insulin-resistant, obese Zucker rats untreated or treated with one of four PPARγ ligands (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, troglitazone, and AG-035029). We analyzed the transcriptional profiles of adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver from the rats and determined whether ligand treatment insulin-sensitizing potency was related to ligand treatment-induced alteration of functional pathways. Ligand treatments improved insulin sensitivity in obese rats to varying degrees. Adipose tissue profiles revealed ligand treatment-selective modulation of inflammatory and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathways, which correlated with ligand treatment-specific insulin-sensitizing potency. Skeletal muscle profiles showed that obese rats exhibited elevated expression of adipocyte and slow-twitch fiber markers, which further increased after ligand treatment, but the magnitude of the treatment-induced changes was not correlated with insulin sensitization. Although PPARγ ligand treatments heterogeneously improved dysregulated expression of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in obese rat liver, these alterations were not correlated with ligand insulin-sensitizing potency. PPARγ ligand treatment-specific insulin-sensitizing potency correlated with modulation of adipose tissue inflammatory and BCAA metabolic pathways, suggesting a functional relationship between these pathways and whole body insulin sensitivity. Other PPARγ ligand treatment-induced functional pathway changes were detected in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver profiles but were not related to degree of insulin sensitization.
SourceAvailable from: Nagabushan Reddy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction(s) (MDs) can be defined as alterations in the mitochondria, including mitochondrial uncoupling, mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial network fragmentation, mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations and the mitochondrial accumulation of protein aggregates. All these MDs are known to alter the capacity of ATP production and are observed in several pathological states/diseases, including cancer, obesity, muscle and neurological disorders. The induction of MDs can also alter the secretion of several metabolites, reactive oxygen species production and modify several cell-signalling pathways to resolve the mitochondrial dysfunction or ultimately trigger cell death. Many metabolites, such as fatty acids and derived compounds, could be secreted into the blood stream by cells suffering from mitochondrial alterations. In this review, we summarize how a mitochondrial uncoupling can modify metabolites, the signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in this process. We describe how to identify the causes or consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction using metabolomics (liquid and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry analysis, NMR spectroscopy) in the obesity and insulin resistance thematic.09/2014; 4(3):831-78. DOI:10.3390/metabo4030831
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ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic (AAAs) amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. Methods: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age) undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. Results: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e. g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (beta= 0.175, P<0.001), log BCAA (beta= 0.147, P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (beta= 0.141, P = 0.012) were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009). Conclusion: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099598 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) have emerged as predictors for the future development of diabetes and may aid in diabetes risk assessment. However, the current methods for the analysis of such amino acids in biological samples are time consuming. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method for serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed. The serum was mixed with isotope-labeled BCAA and AAA internal standards and the amino acids were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by analysis using LC/MS/MS. The LC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column, and the MS/MS detection was performed via the positive electronic spray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Specific analysis of the amino acids was achieved within 2 min. Intra-run and total CVs for the amino acids were less than 2% and 4%, respectively, and the analytical recoveries ranged from 99.6 to 103.6%. A rapid and precise method for the measurement of serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed and may serve as a quick tool for screening serum BCAAs and AAAs in studies assessing diabetes risk.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81144. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081144 · 3.53 Impact Factor