Article

台灣原生燈籠草屬物種開花生理、種間雜交 與ISSR 分子標誌分析之研究

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ABSTRACT 本研究使用蝴蝶之舞(Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi)、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型(K. garambiensis green leaf type)、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型(K. garambiensis purple leaf type)、掌上珠(K. gastonis-bonnieri)、大還魂(K. gracilis)、落地生根(K. pinnatum)及倒吊蓮(K. sphaulata)等7種燈籠草屬物種材料,探討遺傳相似度、開花生理、性狀遺傳及種間雜交之結果。經形態性狀及inter simple sequence repeat(ISSR)之遺傳相似度分析後,台灣原生的燈籠草屬物種與掌上珠、落地生根或蝴蝶之舞的遺傳距離較遠,可將燈籠草屬7個物種分為3群。第1群包括鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型、大還魂及倒吊蓮。第2群為掌上珠及落地生根。另蝴蝶之舞則獨立自成一群。鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型、倒吊蓮及大還魂分化至雌蕊期的時間分別為短日後50、45、40及105天。花芽創始至萼片原體階段是分化的關鍵期,此階段分化速度較快者開花期較早。以GA3 5ppm以上處理落地生根及掌上珠可促使植株開花達100%。掌上珠及落地生根需分別以25 ppm GA3施用1次或2次具有誘導開花的效果。葉形、葉色、花藥顏色及開花形態皆由一對對偶基因所控制。綠色葉片、深裂形葉、紫紅色花藥及開花向上型為顯性對偶基因所控制。在種間雜交試驗中,所有物種的花粉皆有稔性,以蝴蝶之舞、K. fedtschenkoi‘Rosy Dawn’及K. manginii‘Wendy’為母本進行雜交,具有單向雜交不親和的現象。而開花向上型的物種與掌上珠、落地生根或蝴蝶之舞雜交組合的稔實率及發芽率較低,顯示種間雜交較為困難。經種間雜交後,雜交種的花筒長及花筒直徑有顯著增長之效果,開花期也可以明顯提早。尤其在鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、紫葉型及倒吊蓮雜交之後代。因此燈籠草屬利用原生種進行種間雜交,可以進一步改良盆花之特性。 第一章 燈籠草屬之性狀、開花生理與育種 一、燈籠草屬之性狀.................. 1 二、長壽花之起源.................... 1 三、台灣燈籠草屬植物之特性 .........2 四、燈籠草屬物種之染色體數 .........3 五、長壽花之花序 ..................4 六、燈籠草屬之育種歷史..............5 七、影響燈籠草屬物種之開花因子......6 八、長壽花之授粉行為................8 九、長壽花之花期調節................9 十、長壽花之育種方法................9 十一、長壽花的育種目標..............10 參考文獻............................14 第二章 日長與燈籠草屬物種花芽分化及發育之關係 中文摘要............................17 英文摘要 ...........................18 前言................................19 材料與方法..........................20 結果................................23 討論................................27 參考文獻............................43 第三章 Gibberellin誘導掌上珠及落地生根開花之效果 中文摘要............................45 英文摘要............................46 前言................................47 材料與方法..........................48 結果................................49 討論................................51 參考文獻............................60 第四章 燈籠草屬物種性狀之遺傳 中文摘要 ...........................63 英文摘要............................64 前言................................65 材料與方法..........................66 結果................................67 討論................................70 參考文獻............................83 第五章 燈籠草屬之種間雜交 中文摘要............................86 英文摘要............................87 前言................................88 材料與方法..........................89 結果................................92 討論................................96 參考文獻............................118 第六章 利用形態性狀及ISSR分子標誌分析燈籠草屬之遺傳歧異度 中文摘要............................122 英文摘要............................123 前言................................124 材料與方法..........................126 結果................................129 討論................................132 參考文獻............................172 第七章 綜合結論..............................179 參考文獻............................184 附錄................................185 第一章 燈籠草屬之性狀、開花生理與育種 侯宇龍、朱建鏞。2003。燈籠草屬植物花器發育與授粉方法對結實之影響。興大園藝 28:91-101。 侯宇龍、朱建鏞。2004。鵝鑾鼻燈籠草和長壽花之花粉發芽及其種間雜交之研究。中國園藝 50:187-196。 高典林。2002。現代作物育種學。467pp。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。 陳玉?。1985。墾丁國家公園海岸植被。p.133-135。內政部營建署墾丁國家公園管理處出版。台北。 陳德順、胡大維。1976。台灣外來觀賞植物名錄。p.303。川流出版社。台北。 黃敏展。1998。花卉育種。亞熱帶花卉學總論。p.173-181。中興大學園藝系。台中。 Aida, R. and M. 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