Imaging for the diagnosis and management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Center, Emory University Hospital, WCI Bldg, 1365-C Clifton Rd, Ste C1104, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
JNCI Monographs 10/2010; 2010(41):214-7. DOI: 10.1093/jncimonographs/lgq037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased dramatically in parallel with the increased use of screening mammography. There are specific mammographic findings, most associated with shapes (amorphous, fine and coarse pleomorphic, and fine linear) and distributions (linear and segmental) of calcifications that permit a reasonable sensitivity for detection of DCIS without an unreasonable decrease in specificity, especially in view of the dramatic decrease in breast cancer mortality associated with early detection. While some DCIS may never progress to invasive disease, at this time, we cannot make that separation. This should be an active area for research.

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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study described here were to illustrate the spectrum of ultrasonographic features of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to evaluate the ability of ultrasonography (US) to predict the grade and recurrence of DCIS on the basis of mammographic and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively evaluated the ultrasonographic features of 129 DCIS lesions from 127 consecutive women and compared these with their mammographic and histopathologic features. The mean size of DCISs on ultrasonography and mammography (MMG) was 3.67 +/- 1.40 and 4.00 +/- 1.74 cm, respectively, which do not differ statistically (p = 0.09). Despite the statistical difference in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification on US and MMG (p = 0.000), the median BI-RADS classification is category 4c on both US and MMG (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of microcalcification on MMG and US. Clusters, <5 mm in greatest diameter are easily seen on MMG. At US, a scattered/linear distribution on MMG had a higher level of visibility than clustered distribution on MMG. The correlation between tumor size and DCIS with micro-invasion evaluated using US is higher than that obtained using MMG (p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). When US was used for the detection of DCIS, diagnostic accuracy was significantly associated with higher Van Nuys groups, the presence of micro-invasion and comedo carcinoma (p = 0.000, 0.022 and 0.011, respectively). However, mammographic diagnostic accuracy was found not to associate with higher Van Nuys groups, the presence of micro-invasion and comedo carcinoma (p = 0.054, 0.093 and 0.256, respectively). Ultrasonography may play an important role both in detecting DCIS and in evaluating its histopathologic features. Detection of DCIS using MMG alone may be suboptimal for patients with dense breasts, especially among Chinese women. (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 01/2015; 41(1):47-55. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.09.023 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation of oestrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status with the probability of malignancy (POM) of mammographic calcifications in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: A total of 101 women (age range, 27-83 years) with pure DCIS that presented as mammographic calcifications were included. Three radiologists independently reviewed mammograms according to the BI-RADS lexicon and provided 100-point POM scores and a BI-RADS category. ER, HER2 and breast cancer subtypes were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Pairwise correlations between POM and IHC biomarker scores were calculated, and mammographic features were compared between breast cancer subtypes. RESULTS: HER2 level positively correlated with the POM score (P < 0.0001) and BI-RADS category (P < 0.0001), and ER level inversely correlated with the POM score (P < 0.013) and BI-RADS category (P < 0.010). Fine linear branching (P = 0.004) and segmental (P = 0.014) calcifications were significantly associated with HER2-positive cancers, and clustered calcifications were more frequently observed in ER-positive cancers (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: HER2 status in DCIS correlated positively with the POM of mammographic calcifications, as determined by radiologists on the basis of the BI-RADS lexicon. KEY POINTS : • Prediction of malignancy on mammographic ductal carcinoma in situ is difficult. • HER2 level correlated positively with the probability of malignancy assigned by radiologists. • ER level correlated inversely with the probability of malignancy assigned by radiologists. • HER2-positive DCIS more frequently exhibited fine linear branching or segmental calcifications. • ER-positive DCIS more frequently exhibited clustered calcifications.
    European Radiology 03/2013; 23(8). DOI:10.1007/s00330-013-2827-9 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to conduct a Phase I clinical trial to determine the feasibility of intraoperative detection of tumor margins in HER2 positive breast carcinoma using a hand-held γ-probe following administration of (111)In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab fragments. Accurate delineation of tumor margins is important for preventing local recurrence. METHODS: Six patients with HER2-positive in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma were administered 74MBq (0.5mg) of (111)In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab fragments and counts in the tumor, surgical cavity wall and en face margins were measured intraoperatively at 72h post-injection using the Navigator or C-Trak γ-probes. Margins were evaluated histologically. Quantitative whole body planar imaging was performed to estimate radiation absorbed doses using OLINDA/EXM software. SPECT imaging of the thorax was performed to evaluate tumor uptake. The pharmacokinetics of elimination from the blood and plasma were determined over 72h. RESULTS: There were no acute adverse reactions from (111)In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab fragments and no changes in hematological or biochemical indices were found over a 3month period. (111)In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab fragments exhibited a biphasic elimination from the blood and plasma with t1/2α=11.9h and 7.5h, respectively, and t1/2β=26.6 and 20.7h, respectively. The radiopharmaceutical accumulated in the liver, spleen and kidneys. SPECT imaging did not reveal tumor in any patient. The mean effective dose was 0.146mSv/MBq (10.8mSv for 74MBq). Counts in excised tumors were low but were higher than in margins. Margins in two patients harboured tumor but this was not correlated with counts obtained using the γ-probes. Surgical cavity counts were high and likely due to detection of γ-photons outside the surgical field. CONCLUSION: We conclude that it was not feasible, at least at the administered amount of radioactivity used in this study, to reliably detect the margins of disease in patients with in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma intraoperatively using a hand-held γ-probe and (111)In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab fragments due to low uptake in the tumor and involved margins.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2013.03.005 · 2.41 Impact Factor