Crystal and solution structures of an odorant-binding protein from the southern house mosquito complexed with an oviposition pheromone.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 10/2010; 107(44):19102-7. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012274107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Culex mosquitoes introduce the pathogens responsible for filariasis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, and other diseases into humans. Currently, traps baited with oviposition semiochemicals play an important role in detection efforts and could provide an environmentally friendly approach to controlling their populations. The odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the female's antenna play a crucial, if yet imperfectly understood, role in sensing oviposition cues. Here, we report the X-ray crystallography and NMR 3D structures of OBP1 for Culex quinquefasciatus (CquiOBP1) bound to an oviposition pheromone (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MOP). In both studies, CquiOBP1 had the same overall six-helix structure seen in other insect OBPs, but a detailed analysis revealed an important previously undescribed feature. There are two models for OBP-mediated signal transduction: (i) direct release of the pheromone from an internal binding pocket in a pH-dependent fashion and (ii) detection of a pheromone-induced conformational change in the OBP·pheromone complex. Although CquiOBP1 binds MOP in a pH-dependent fashion, it lacks the C terminus required for the pH-dependent release model. This study shows that CquiOBP binds MOP in an unprecedented fashion using both a small central cavity for the lactone head group and a long hydrophobic channel for its tail.

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    ABSTRACT: Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are the first components of the olfactory system to encounter and bind attractant and repellent odors emanating from various sources for presentation to olfactory receptors, which trigger relevant signal transduction cascades culminating in specific physiological and behavioral responses. For disease vectors, particularly hematophagous mosquitoes, repellents represent important defenses against parasitic diseases because they effect a reduction in the rate of contact between the vectors and humans. OBPs are targets for structure-based rational approaches for the discovery of new repellent or other olfaction inhibitory compounds with desirable features. Thus, a study was conducted to characterize the high resolution crystal structure of an OBP of Anopheles gambiae, the African malaria mosquito vector, in complex with N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), one of the most effective repellents that has been in worldwide use for six decades. We found that DEET binds at the edge of a long hydrophobic tunnel by exploiting numerous non-polar interactions and one hydrogen bond, which is perceived to be critical for DEET's recognition. Based on the experimentally determined affinity of AgamOBP1 for DEET (K (d) of 31.3 μΜ) and our structural data, we modeled the interactions for this protein with 29 promising leads reported in the literature to have significant repellent activities, and carried out fluorescence binding studies with four highly ranked ligands. Our experimental results confirmed the modeling predictions indicating that structure-based modeling could facilitate the design of novel repellents with enhanced binding affinity and selectivity.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 06/2011; 69(2):283-97. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The odorant binding protein of Culex quinquefasciatus (CquiOBP1), expressed on the insect antenna, is crucial for the investigation of trapping baited with oviposition semi-chemicals and controlling mosquito populations. The acidic titratable residues pKa prediction and the ligand binding poses investigation in two systems (pH 7 and pH 5) are studied by constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) and molecular docking methods. Research results reveal that the change of the protonation states would disrupt some important H-bonds, such as Asp 66-Asp 70, Glu 105-Asn 102, etc. The cleavage of these H-bonds leads to the movement of the relative position of hydrophobic tunnel, N- and C- termini loops and pH-sensing triad (His23-Tyr54-Val125) in acid solution. Ligand MOP has lower affinity and shows different binding poses to protein CquiOBP1 at pH 5. This ligand may be released from another tunnel between helices α3 and α4 in acidic environment. However, it would bind to the protein with high affinity in neutral environment. This work could provide more penetrating understanding of the pH-induced ligand-releasing mechanism.
    Journal of Molecular Modeling 11/2012; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal), Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) adipate (Bis), L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074). The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+)-Disparlure ((+)-D), and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+)-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+)-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1) was 0.68 ± 0.01 μM, for (+)-D was 5.32 ± 0.11 μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+)-D were 1.88 ± 0.02 μM and 5.54 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+)-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+)-D at pH7.3. To PBP2, these chemicals had lower affinity than the sex pheromone except Bis at pH 5.5 and pH 7.3. Only PBP1 had higher affinity with Sal than the sex pheromone at pH 5.5. Therefore, the structures of PBP1 and PBP2 had different changes at pH5.5 and 7.3, showing different affinity to chemicals. This study helps understanding the role of PBPs as well as in developing more efficient chemicals for pest control.
    International journal of biological sciences 01/2012; 8(7):979-91. · 3.17 Impact Factor

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