Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that is predominantly expressed in dendritic cells (DCs). Its cytoplasmic region binds SHP-1 or SHP-2 protein tyrosine phosphatases, while its extracellular region interacts with CD47, another immunoglobulin superfamily protein, constituting cell-cell signaling. SIRPα was previously shown to be important for development of contact hypersensitivity, likely as a result of its positive regulation of the priming by DCs of CD4(+) T cells. However, the mechanism by which SIRPα regulates DC functions remains unknown. Here we found that the number of I-A(+) cells, which represent migratory DCs such as Langerhans cells (LCs) or dermal DCs from the skin, in the peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) was markedly decreased in mice expressing a mutant form of SIRPα that lacks the cytoplasmic region compared with that of wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, an increase of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-bearing I-A(+) cells in the draining lymph nodes (LNs) after skin-painting with FITC was markedly blunted in SIRPα mutant mice. However, migratory ability, as well as expression of CCR7, of bone marrow-derived DCs prepared from SIRPα mutant mice were not impaired. By contrast, the number of I-A(+) LCs in the epidermis of SIRPα mutant mice was markedly decreased compared with that of WT mice. In addition, the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor II in LCs of SIRPα mutant mice was markedly decreased compared with that of WT mice. These results suggest that SIRPα is important for homeostasis of LCs in the skin, as well as of migratory DCs in the LNs, but unlikely for migration of these cells from the skin to draining LNs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) promote immune responses to foreign Ags and immune tolerance to self-Ags. Deregulation of DCs is implicated in autoimmunity, but the molecules that regulate DCs to protect against autoimmunity have remained unknown. In this study, we show that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 specifically in DCs develop splenomegaly associated with more CD11c(+) DCs. Splenic DCs from the mutant mice showed upregulation of CD86 and CCR7 expression and of LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mice manifested more splenic Th1 cells, consistent with the increased ability of their DCs to induce production of IFN-γ by Ag-specific T cells in vitro. The number of splenic CD5(+)CD19(+) B-1a cells and the serum concentrations of Igs M and G2a were also increased in the mutant mice. Moreover, aged mutant mice developed glomerulonephritis and interstitial pneumonitis together with increased serum concentrations of autoantibodies. Shp1 is thus a key regulator of DC functions that protects against autoimmunity.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(11):5397-407. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103210 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For years, most vaccines have been administered via the intramuscular or subcutaneous routes. New attractive alternatives to vaccine delivery via hair follicle or intradermal (ID) routes have therefore been developed. Vaccines based on solid or biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs), virus-like particle, virosomes, liposomes have shown promise as good approaches to recombinant proteins for immunization. The potential for ID or transcutaneous NPs-based vaccines with patch or tape-stripping has been validated with several vaccine models in animals studies and human clinical trials. Skin-immunization with conventional vaccine are comparable and are sometimes superior when compared to conventional vaccination. More human clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of particle-based vaccines, including specific patient populations such as immunocompromised patients.
Nanotechnology in Dermatology, 01/2013: pages 165-178; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-5033-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), also known as SHPS-1/SIRPA, is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that binds to the protein tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2 through its cytoplasmic region and is predominantly expressed in dendritic cells and macrophages. CD47, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is a ligand for SIRPα, with the two proteins constituting a cell-cell communication system. It was previously demonstrated that the CD47-SIRPα signaling pathway is important for prevention of clearance by splenic macrophages of red blood cells or platelets from the bloodstream. In addition, this signaling pathway is also implicated in homeostatic regulation of dendritic cells and development of autoimmunity. Here we describe the detailed protocols for methods that were used in our recent studies to study the role of the CD47-SIRPα signaling pathway in autoimmunity. We also demonstrate that hematopoietic SIRPα as well as nonhematopoietic CD47 are important for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, we here strengthen the importance of experimental animal models as well as other methods for the study of molecular pathogenesis of autoimmunity.
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