Immunohistochemical study on the secretory host defense system of bactericidal peptides in rat digestive organs.
ABSTRACT To clarify the fundamental regulation mechanism against indigenous bacterial proliferation in the alimentary tract, we immunohistochemically examined the localization of 4 bactericidal peptides (BP) in the rat digestive exocrine glands. In the upper alimentary tract, lysozyme was detected in the gustatory, extraorbital lacrimal and parotid glands. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was detected in the extraorbital lacrimal glands. β-defensin1 was detected in the gustatory and extraorbital lacrimal glands. β-defensin2 was detected in the Harderian glands. In the stomach, β-defensins were detected in the gastric superficial epithelial cells. In the small and large intestines, only lysozyme and sPLA2 were detected in the Paneth cells. In the cecum, all 4 BP were detected in the middle to apical portions of the crypts, and only sPLA2 was detected in the basal portion. No BP were localized in other exocrine glands associated with the alimentary tract. In addition, all 4 BP were also detected in the columnar epithelial cells of the apical portions of intestinal villi. In the intestinal superficial epithelial cells, lysozyme and β-defensins were detected in the ascending colon, whereas only β-defensin1 was detected in the descending colon and rectum. These results suggest that BP are mainly secreted from exocrine tissues in the initial portion of the digestive tract and play a role in host defense against indigenous bacteria throughout the digestive tract. Part of the BP in the chyme might be absorbed by the epithelium at the most inner sites of mucosae in the small and large intestines.
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024). The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2.BMC Gastroenterology 06/2012; 12:78. · 2.11 Impact Factor