Reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 2 and 4 are required for chondrogenic differentiation.
ABSTRACT Although generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (Nox) is thought to be important for signal transduction in nonphagocytic cells, little is known of the role ROS plays in chondrogenesis. We therefore examined the possible contribution of ROS generation to chondrogenesis using both ATDC5 cells and primary chondrocytes derived from mouse embryos. The intracellular level of ROS was increased during the differentiation process, which was then blocked by treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Expression of Nox1 and Nox2 was increased upon differentiation of ATDC5 cells and primary mouse chondrocytes, whereas that of Nox4, which was relatively high initially, was decreased gradually during chondrogenesis. In developing limb, Nox1 and Nox2 were highly expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Nox4 was highly expressed in proliferating chondrocytes and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 expression by RNA interference blocked both ROS generation and differentiation of ATDC5 cells, whereas depletion of Nox1 had no such effect. We also found that ATDC5 cells depleted of Nox2 or Nox4 underwent apoptosis. Further, inhibition of Akt phosphorylation along with subsequent activation of ERK was observed in the cells. Finally, depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 inhibited the accumulation of proteoglycan in primary chondrocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS generated by Nox2 or Nox4 are essential for survival and differentiation in the early stage of chondrogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: A critical risk factor in colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor therapy is the resistance to the apoptotic effects of different compounds from the intestinal lumen, among them butyrate (main regulator of colonic epithelium homeostasis). Insensitivity to butyrate-induced apoptosis yields resistance to other agents, as bile acids or chemotherapy drugs, allowing the selective growth of malignant cell subpopulations. Here we analyze bile acid-induced apoptosis in a butyrate-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (BCS-TC2.BR2) to determine the mechanisms that underlay the resistance to these agents in comparison with their parental butyrate-sensitive BCS-TC2 cells. This study demonstrates that DCA and CDCA still induce apoptosis in butyrate-resistant cells through increased ROS production by activation of membrane-associated enzymes and subsequent triggering of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Although this mechanism is similar to that described in butyrate-sensitive cells, cell viability is significantly higher in resistant cells. Moreover, butyrate-resistant cells show higher Bcl-2 levels that confer resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis sequestering Bax and avoiding Bax-dependent pore formation in the mitochondria. We have confirmed that this resistance is reverted using the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263, thus demonstrating that the lower sensitivity of butyrate-resistant cells to the apoptotic effects of bile acids is mainly due to increased Bcl-2 levels.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2012; 1823(12):2201-2209. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular bioenergetics and redox (reduction-oxidation) play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, key aspects of building new tissues. In the present study, we examined the metabolic characteristics of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) during proliferation and differentiation in both monolayer and three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds. In monolayer, hASCs exhibited higher glycolysis and lower ox-phos as compared to both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiated cells, and hASCs demonstrated the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis). However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased during adipogenic differentiation but decreased during osteogenic differentiation. Similarly, a decrease in ROS levels along with higher mitochondrial membrane potential and viability was observed in hASCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels containing an adhesion peptide (RGD), compared to PEG hydrogels with scrambled control peptide (GRD), demonstrating that adhesion-dependent signaling can also regulate ROS production and bioenergetics. As a result, we hypothesized that we could modulate osteogenesis in PEG hydrogels containing the adhesion peptide (RGD) by further reducing ROS levels using a small therapeutic molecule, L-carnitine, a metabolite with purported antioxidant effects. We observed reduced ROS levels, no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased osteogenic differentiation and tissue production in cells in the presence of L-carnitine. These results suggest the potential to manipulate tissue production by modulating cellular metabolism.Tissue Engineering Part A 04/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Backgrounds : Recent studies have demonstrated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) itself plays an indispensable role in the process of differentiation in various tissues. However, it is unclear whether ROS have an effect on the differentiation of keratinocytes essential for the development of the epidermal permeability barrier. Objectives The aim of the study is to determine a major H2O2-generating source by ionomycin in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs), and elucidate the physiological role of H2O2 generated by identified dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) on differentiation markers of NHKs. Methods To detect H2O2 level generated by ionomycin in NHKs, luminal-HRP assays are performed. To examine the effects of DUOX1 on differentiation markers of NHKs, analysis of Q-RT-PCR, siRNA knockdown, and Western blot analysis were performed. Result We found that levels of H2O2 generated by ionomycin, a Ca2+ signal inducer, showed Ca2+ dependence manner. In addition, DPI, an inhibitor of NOXes, significantly reversed the ionomycin-induced H2O2 level, and inhibited the mRNA expression levels of keratin 1, keratin 10, and filaggrin compared with other ROS generating system inhibitors. Interestingly, we demonstrated that extracellular Ca2+ markedly up-regulated mRNA expression levels of DUOX1 among NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms. Knockdown of DUOX1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in NHKs significantly antagonized an increase of ionomycin-induced H2O2 level, and specifically decreased the expressions of several keratinocyte differentiation markers such as keratin 1, transgluatimnase 3, desmoglein 1, and aquaporin 9. In addition, we also found that formation of cornified envelope was significantly reduced in DUOX1-knockdown NHKs. Conclusions These results suggest that DUOX1 is the major H2O2-producing source in NHKs by stimulated with Ca 2+, and play a significant role in regulating the expression of specific markers necessary for normal differentiation of keratinocytes.Journal of dermatological science 01/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor