Reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 2 and 4 are required for chondrogenic differentiation.
ABSTRACT Although generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (Nox) is thought to be important for signal transduction in nonphagocytic cells, little is known of the role ROS plays in chondrogenesis. We therefore examined the possible contribution of ROS generation to chondrogenesis using both ATDC5 cells and primary chondrocytes derived from mouse embryos. The intracellular level of ROS was increased during the differentiation process, which was then blocked by treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Expression of Nox1 and Nox2 was increased upon differentiation of ATDC5 cells and primary mouse chondrocytes, whereas that of Nox4, which was relatively high initially, was decreased gradually during chondrogenesis. In developing limb, Nox1 and Nox2 were highly expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Nox4 was highly expressed in proliferating chondrocytes and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 expression by RNA interference blocked both ROS generation and differentiation of ATDC5 cells, whereas depletion of Nox1 had no such effect. We also found that ATDC5 cells depleted of Nox2 or Nox4 underwent apoptosis. Further, inhibition of Akt phosphorylation along with subsequent activation of ERK was observed in the cells. Finally, depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 inhibited the accumulation of proteoglycan in primary chondrocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS generated by Nox2 or Nox4 are essential for survival and differentiation in the early stage of chondrogenesis.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiangdong Wu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), have been recognized for years to mimic insulin action on glucose transport in adipose cells. Early studies also demonstrated the complementary finding that H2O2 was elaborated during treatment of cells with insulin, suggesting that cellular H2O2 generation was integral to insulin signaling. Recently, reactive oxygen species elicited by various hormones and growth factors have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways in various cell types. We recently reported that insulin-stimulated H2O2 modulates proximal and distal insulin signaling, at least in part through the oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) that negatively regulate the insulin action pathway. Nox4, a homologue in the family of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunits, was found to be prominently expressed in insulin-sensitive cells. By various molecular approaches, Nox4 was shown to mediate insulin-stimulated H2O2 generation and impact the insulin signaling cascade. Overexpression of Nox4 also significantly reversed the inhibition of insulin-stimulated receptor tyrosine phosphorylation by PTP1B, a widely expressed PTPase implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, by inhibiting its catalytic activity. These recent studies have provided insight into Nox4 as a novel molecular link between insulin-stimulated reactive oxygen species and mechanisms involved in their modulation of insulin signal transduction.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 01/2005; 7(7-8):1021-31. · 7.19 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases consists of 7 members: NOX1 to NOX5, DUOX1 and 2. NOX1 is predominantly found in the colon, where it possibly plays a role in the host defense. NOX2 is the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a clearly established host defense enzyme. NOX3 is almost exclusively expressed in the inner ear, where it is involved in otoconia morphogenesis, but based on its localization might also play a role in the auditory system. NOX4, widely expressed in kidney, vascular cells, osteoclasts etc.; it might be a constitutively active enzyme, regulated on the level of gene expression but its precise physiological function remains unknown. NOX5, a Ca2+ activated enzyme is predominantly expressed in lymphoid tissues and testis, where it might be involved in signaling processes. DUOX1 is expressed in the thyroid and in respiratory epithelia, and DUOX2 in the thyroid and in gastrointestinal glandular epithelia. Both DUOX enzymes are involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, but possibly also in epithelial host defense.Japanese journal of infectious diseases 11/2004; 57(5):S28-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: gp91phox is the catalytic subunit of the respiratory burst oxidase, an NADPH-dependent, superoxide generating enzyme present in phagocytes. In phagocytes, the enzyme functions in host defense, but reactive oxygen generation has also been described in a variety of non-phagocytic cells, including cancer cells. We previously reported the cloning of Nox1 (NADPH oxidase1), a homolog of gp91phox, its expression in colon and vascular smooth muscle, and its oncogenic properties when overexpressed [Suh et al. (1999). Nature 401, 79-82]. Herein, we report the cloning and tissue expression of three additional homologs of gp91phox, termed Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5, members of a growing family of gp91phox homologs. All are predicted to encode proteins of around 65 kDa, and like gp91phox, all show 5-6 conserved predicted transmembrane alpha-helices containing putative heme binding regions as well as a flavoprotein homology domain containing predicted binding sites for both FAD and NADPH. Nox3 is expressed primarily in fetal tissues, and Nox4 is expressed in not only fetal tissues, but also kidney, placenta and glioblastoma cells. Nox5 is expressed in a variety of fetal tissues as well as in adult spleen and uterus. Nox isoforms are aberrantly expressed in several cells derived from human cancers, with Nox4 being the isoform most frequently expressed in the tumor cells investigated. Thus, expression of Nox family members is likely to account for some of the reactive oxygen generation seen in non-phagocytic cells.Gene 06/2001; 269(1-2):131-40. · 2.20 Impact Factor