Reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 2 and 4 are required for chondrogenic differentiation.
ABSTRACT Although generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (Nox) is thought to be important for signal transduction in nonphagocytic cells, little is known of the role ROS plays in chondrogenesis. We therefore examined the possible contribution of ROS generation to chondrogenesis using both ATDC5 cells and primary chondrocytes derived from mouse embryos. The intracellular level of ROS was increased during the differentiation process, which was then blocked by treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Expression of Nox1 and Nox2 was increased upon differentiation of ATDC5 cells and primary mouse chondrocytes, whereas that of Nox4, which was relatively high initially, was decreased gradually during chondrogenesis. In developing limb, Nox1 and Nox2 were highly expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Nox4 was highly expressed in proliferating chondrocytes and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 expression by RNA interference blocked both ROS generation and differentiation of ATDC5 cells, whereas depletion of Nox1 had no such effect. We also found that ATDC5 cells depleted of Nox2 or Nox4 underwent apoptosis. Further, inhibition of Akt phosphorylation along with subsequent activation of ERK was observed in the cells. Finally, depletion of Nox2 or Nox4 inhibited the accumulation of proteoglycan in primary chondrocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS generated by Nox2 or Nox4 are essential for survival and differentiation in the early stage of chondrogenesis.
Article: Evolution of the Ferric Reductase Domain (FRD) Superfamily: Modularity, Functional Diversification, and Signature Motifs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A heme-containing transmembrane ferric reductase domain (FRD) is found in bacterial and eukaryotic protein families, including ferric reductases (FRE), and NADPH oxidases (NOX). The aim of this study was to understand the phylogeny of the FRD superfamily. Bacteria contain FRD proteins consisting only of the ferric reductase domain, such as YedZ and short bFRE proteins. Full length FRE and NOX enzymes are mostly found in eukaryotic cells and all possess a dehydrogenase domain, allowing them to catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular metal ions (FRE) or oxygen (NOX). Metazoa possess YedZ-related STEAP proteins, possibly derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses suggests that FRE enzymes appeared early in evolution, followed by a transition towards EF-hand containing NOX enzymes (NOX5- and DUOX-like). An ancestral gene of the NOX(1-4) family probably lost the EF-hands and new regulatory mechanisms of increasing complexity evolved in this clade. Two signature motifs were identified: NOX enzymes are distinguished from FRE enzymes through a four amino acid motif spanning from transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) to TM4, and YedZ/STEAP proteins are identified by the replacement of the first canonical heme-spanning histidine by a highly conserved arginine. The FRD superfamily most likely originated in bacteria.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58126. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Never-ageing cellular senescence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords 'cellular senescence and cancer' reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us - researchers in the field of cancer biology--fascinated and busy. In this short review, we summarise the many cellular pathways leading to cellular senescence and we discuss the latest experimental evidence and the questions emerging in the field.European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 05/2011; 47(11):1616-22. · 4.12 Impact Factor