Functional Dissection of the Apicomplexan Glideosome Molecular Architecture

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Centre Medical Universitaire, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
Cell host & microbe (Impact Factor: 12.19). 10/2010; 8(4):343-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2010.09.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The glideosome of apicomplexan parasites is an actin- and myosin-based machine located at the pellicle, between the plasma membrane (PM) and inner membrane complex (IMC), that powers parasite motility, migration, and host cell invasion and egress. It is composed of myosin A, its light chain MLC1, and two gliding-associated proteins, GAP50 and GAP45. We identify GAP40, a polytopic protein of the IMC, as an additional glideosome component and show that GAP45 is anchored to the PM and IMC via its N- and C-terminal extremities, respectively. While the C-terminal region of GAP45 recruits MLC1-MyoA to the IMC, the N-terminal acylation and coiled-coil domain preserve pellicle integrity during invasion. GAP45 is essential for gliding, invasion, and egress. The orthologous Plasmodium falciparum GAP45 can fulfill this dual function, as shown by transgenera complementation, whereas the coccidian GAP45 homolog (designated here as) GAP70 specifically recruits the glideosome to the apical cap of the parasite.

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    ABSTRACT: The apicomplexan family of pathogens, which includes Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, are primarily obligate intracellular parasites and invade multiple cell types. These parasites express extracellular membrane protein receptors, adhesins, to form specific pathogen-host cell interaction complexes. Various adhesins are used to invade a variety of cell types. The receptors are linked to an actomyosin motor, which is part of a complex comprised of many proteins known as the invasion machinery or glideosome. To date, reviews on invasion have focused primarily on the molecular pathways and signals of invasion, with little or no structural information presented. Over 75 structures of parasite receptors and glideosome proteins have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank. These structures include adhesins, motor proteins, bridging proteins, inner membrane complex and cytoskeletal proteins, as well as co-crystal structures with peptides and antibodies. These structures provide information regarding key interactions necessary for target receptor engagement, machinery complex formation, how force is transmitted, and the basis of inhibitory antibodies. Additionally, these structures can provide starting points for the development of antibodies and inhibitory molecules targeting protein-protein interactions, with the aim to inhibit invasion. This review provides an overview of the parasite adhesin protein families, the glideosome components, glideosome architecture, and discuss recent work regarding alternative models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: The glideosome is an actomyosin-based machinery that powers motility in Apicomplexa and participates in host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. The central component of the glideosome, myosin A (MyoA), is a motor recruited at the pellicle by the acylated gliding-associated protein GAP45. In Toxoplasma gondii, GAP45 also contributes to the cohesion of the pellicle, composed of the inner membrane complex (IMC) and the plasma membrane, during motor traction. GAP70 was previously identified as a paralog of GAP45 that is tailored to recruit MyoA at the apical cap in the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa. A third member of this family, GAP80, is demonstrated here to assemble a new glideosome, which recruits the class XIV myosin C (MyoC) at the basal polar ring. MyoC shares the same myosin light chains as MyoA and also interacts with the integral IMC proteins GAP50 and GAP40. Moreover, a central component of this complex, the IMC-associated protein 1 (IAP1), acts as the key determinant for the restricted localization of MyoC to the posterior pole. Deletion of specific components of the MyoC-glideosome underscores the installation of compensatory mechanisms with components of the MyoA-glideosome. Conversely, removal of MyoA leads to the relocalization of MyoC along the pellicle and at the apical cap that accounts for residual invasion. The two glideosomes exhibit a considerable level of plasticity to ensure parasite survival.
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Jun 5, 2014