Reporting guidelines aim to facilitate publication of a full and accurate description of research conducted. The motivations for a full and accurate description of research is to enable reproduction of the study, assessment of bias, extraction of data from the study, and to fulfill an ethical obligation to maximize the utility of research findings. Many reporting guidelines exist and most are based on a specific study design such as randomized controlled trials (CONSORT statement) and observational studies (STROBE statement). The REFLECT statement focuses on randomized control trials in livestock and food safety studies. The REFLECT statement has increased emphasis on conveying information about animal housing, group level allocation and challenge studies. Guidelines can be used by authors, reviewers and editors to provide readers with a full and accurate description of the work conducted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases are the most powerful mechanism of resistance to carbapenems. Carbapenemases have been reported extensively worldwide now in Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenemases of the KPC type have been reported first from the USA in Klebsiella pneumoniae, then worldwide with a marked endemicity in Israel and Greece. Metallo-enzymes (VIM, IMP…) have been also reported internationnaly with high prevalence in Southern Europe and Asia. OXA-48 which is one of the latest carbapenemases reported differs structurally from the other carbapenemases and have been identified mostly from Mediterranean countries. These carbapenemase genes are mostly plasmid located in K. pneumoniae from nosocomial origin. They have been also identified as a source of community-acquired infections. Carbapenemase producers are also multidrug resistant explaining the difficulty to treat infections. Detection of infected patients and carriers remain difficult which may explain an underlying spread with dramatic therapeutic consequences.
Archives de Pédiatrie 09/2010; 17. DOI:10.1016/S0929-693X(10)70918-0 · 0.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence based medicine involves using the best current information to inform patient care. In veterinary medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine (EBVM) has been discussed for about 15 years. Epidemiology and EBVM are closely linked and epidemiologists can provide crucial support for the practice of EBVM. The secondary literature which summarizes important research into more accessible and applied work could benefit from additional involvement by epidemiologists. Epidemiologists have a broad range of stakeholders for their work and should consider who the specific audience is and what the important endpoints are for that audience. More work on reporting guidelines for observational studies and on issues relating to external validity are needed to facilitate EBVM. Epidemiologists should consider teaching veterinary, graduate and post-graduate students how to perform EBVM. Getting credit for efforts which support EBVM can be difficult but creative presentation of work, publications and grants relating to EBVM should help. Quite a few veterinary journals are actively soliciting manuscripts relating to EBVM.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 10/2010; 97(3-4):157-64. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.09.013 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 06/2011; 38(2):123-34. DOI:10.3138/jvme.38.2.123 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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