The anti-MMP activity of benzalkonium chloride.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the ability of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to bind to dentine and to inhibit soluble recombinant MMPs and bound dentine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Dentine powder was prepared from extracted human molars. Half was left mineralized; the other half was completely demineralized. The binding of BAC to dentine powder was followed by measuring changes in the supernatant concentration using UV spectrometry. The inhibitory effects of BAC on rhMMP-2, -8 and -9 were followed using a commercially available in vitro proteolytic assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP-activity was evaluated in completely demineralized beams. Each beam was either dipped into BAC and then dropped into 1 mL of a complete medium (CM) or they were placed in 1 mL of CM containing BAC for 30 days. After 30 days, changes in the dry mass of the beams or in the hydroxyproline (HYP) content of hydrolysates of the media were quantitated as indirect measures of matrix collagen hydrolysis by MMPs.
Demineralized dentine powder took up 10-times more BAC than did mineralized powder. Water rinsing removed about 50% of the bound BAC, whilst rinsing with 0.5M NaCl removed more than 90% of the bound BAC. BAC concentrations 0.5wt% produced 100% inhibition of soluble recombinant MMP-2, -8 or -9, and inhibited matrix-bound MMPs between 55 and 66% when measured as mass loss or 76-81% when measured as solubilization of collagen peptide fragments.
BAC is effective at inhibiting both soluble recombinant MMPs and matrix-bound dentine MMPs in the absence of resins.
- SourceAvailable from: Francesca Damiola[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The treatment of cultured rat-1 fibroblasts or H35 hepatoma cells with high concentrations of serum induces the circadian expression of various genes whose transcription also oscillates in living animals. Oscillating genes include rper1 and rper2 (rat homologs of the Drosophila clock gene period), and the genes encoding the transcription factors Rev-Erb alpha, DBP, and TEF. In rat-1 fibroblasts, up to three consecutive daily oscillations with an average period length of 22.5 hr could be recorded. The temporal sequence of the various mRNA accumulation cycles is the same in cultured cells and in vivo. The serum shock of rat-1 fibroblasts also results in a transient stimulation of c-fos and rper expression and thus mimics light-induced immediate-early gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.Cell 07/1998; 93(6):929-37. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Within the mammalian hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a circadian clock for timing of diverse neuronal, endocrine, and behavioral rhythms. By culturing cells from neonatal rat SCN on fixed microelectrode arrays, we have been able to record spontaneous action potentials from individual SCN neurons for days or weeks, revealing prominent circadian rhythms in firing rate. Despite abundant functional synapses, circadian rhythms expressed by neurons in the same culture are not synchronized. After reversible blockade of neuronal firing lasting 2.5 days, circadian firing rhythms re-emerge with unaltered phases. These data suggest that the SCN contains a large population of autonomous, single-cell circadian oscillators, and that synapses formed in vitro are neither necessary for operation of these oscillators nor sufficient for synchronizing them.Neuron 05/1995; 14(4):697-706. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell division in many mammalian tissues is associated with specific times of day, but just how the circadian clock controls this timing has not been clear. Here, we show in the regenerating liver (of mice) that the circadian clock controls the expression of cell cycle-related genes that in turn modulate the expression of active Cyclin B1-Cdc2 kinase, a key regulator of mitosis. Among these genes, expression of wee1 was directly regulated by the molecular components of the circadian clockwork. In contrast, the circadian clockwork oscillated independently of the cell cycle in single cells. Thus, the intracellular circadian clockwork can control the cell-division cycle directly and unidirectionally in proliferating cells.Science 11/2003; 302(5643):255-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor