The anti-MMP activity of benzalkonium chloride

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Journal of dentistry (Impact Factor: 2.75). 10/2010; 39(1):57-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.10.003
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the ability of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to bind to dentine and to inhibit soluble recombinant MMPs and bound dentine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Dentine powder was prepared from extracted human molars. Half was left mineralized; the other half was completely demineralized. The binding of BAC to dentine powder was followed by measuring changes in the supernatant concentration using UV spectrometry. The inhibitory effects of BAC on rhMMP-2, -8 and -9 were followed using a commercially available in vitro proteolytic assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP-activity was evaluated in completely demineralized beams. Each beam was either dipped into BAC and then dropped into 1 mL of a complete medium (CM) or they were placed in 1 mL of CM containing BAC for 30 days. After 30 days, changes in the dry mass of the beams or in the hydroxyproline (HYP) content of hydrolysates of the media were quantitated as indirect measures of matrix collagen hydrolysis by MMPs.
Demineralized dentine powder took up 10-times more BAC than did mineralized powder. Water rinsing removed about 50% of the bound BAC, whilst rinsing with 0.5M NaCl removed more than 90% of the bound BAC. BAC concentrations 0.5wt% produced 100% inhibition of soluble recombinant MMP-2, -8 or -9, and inhibited matrix-bound MMPs between 55 and 66% when measured as mass loss or 76-81% when measured as solubilization of collagen peptide fragments.
BAC is effective at inhibiting both soluble recombinant MMPs and matrix-bound dentine MMPs in the absence of resins.

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Available from: Lorenzo Breschi, Apr 21, 2014
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    • "There are two clinical scenarios related to self-adhesive resin cements where a protection from endogenous enzymatic activity may be needed. First, because of the acidic environment at the interface, which may activate the MMPs and CCs [12]. Another vulnerability is created when the self-adhesive resin cements are used after acid etching. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The clinical survival rates of the adhesive restorations are limited due to the deterioration of resin-dentin bonds over time, partly due to the endogenous enzymatic activity of dentin. Recently, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been shown to effectively inhibit endogenous protease activity of dentin. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the degree of conversion (DC), vickers hardness (VH), setting time (ST) and biaxial flexural strength (FS) of two self-adhesive resin luting cements (RC). Methods: Two RC SpeedCEM (Ivoclar-Vivadent) and BisCem (Bisco) were modified by addition of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 wt% BAC. The luting cements without the addition of BAC served as control. The DC (FT-IR/ATR from the bottom of the resin disc), vickers hardness (from top and bottom of the light-cured specimen), setting time (ISO 4049) and biaxial flexural strength (0.6 × 6 mm discs) of the specimens were tested. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukeys HSD. Results: DC results were in the range of 70-80%, with some significant changes in BisCem (p < 0.05). VH values of both materials increased significantly compared to control, with no significant change as the BAC percentage increases. BAC addition influenced the ST differently for both materials. For BisCem, a gradual decrease (p < 0.05) was observed whereas, for SpeedCEM, a gradual increase was observed until 1% BAC (p < 0.05). For FS values, a gradual decrease was observed for both materials with increased amounts of BAC (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. Conclusions: BAC addition of up to 1% seems to be acceptable considering the properties tested. Clinical significance. Incorporation of benzalkonium chloride to self-adhesive resin luting cements during the mixing procedure does not significantly affect the degree of conversion or flexural strength of the luting agent and may be a good option to improve the durability of adhesive interface.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 05/2014; 72(8):1-8. DOI:10.3109/00016357.2014.913307 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Benzalkonium chloride is a nitrogenous cationic surface-acting agent containing a quaternary ammonium group. It has three main uses; an antimicrobial agent, as a cationic surfactant and a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor.[31] The results of the present study revealed that the use of TR enhanced the μ-SBS of the self-etch adhesive, Clearfil S3, compared with the control group, yet it did not reach that obtained by NaOCl. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the effect of application of four different disinfecting agents on the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) of an etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred flat dentin surfaces of human molars were produced by wet grinding the buccal surfaces. Specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the disinfectant used: Group I: Control (no disinfectant); Group II: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite based; Group III: 2% chlorhexidine based (Consepsis), Group IV: 0.1% benzalkoniumchloride based (Tubulicid red) and Group V: 3% doxycycline based (Biopure, MTAD). Specimens were bonded using either Adper Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S3 Bond, which were employed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Resin composite microcylinders were bonded using Tygon® tubes for μ-SBS testing. The modes of failure were noted after visual examination using a binocular stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Failures were classified as adhesive, or mixed. μ-SBS results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Dentin disinfectants tested significantly negated the bonding of Adper Single bond 2 and the groups were ranked; Group I > Group V = Group IV > Group II = Group III, meanwhile they enhanced significantly the μ-SBS values upon using Clearfil S3 Bond and were ranked; Group II > Group III = Group IV = Group V > Group I. Most failures were adhesive with the Adper single bond adhesive system. Mixed modes of failure were evident with Clearfil S3 bond. Conclusions: The disinfectants tested should not be used with Adper Single Bond 2 when applied before the etching step, However they could be used safely prior to bonding with Clearfil S3 Bond.
    European journal of dentistry 04/2014; 8(2):184-90. DOI:10.4103/1305-7456.130596
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    • "Several clinically possible adjunctive procedures have been suggested to improve short-, and perhaps long-term adhesion to dentin. These include ethanol wet-bonding [20] [21], extended adhesive application time [22] [23] [24] use of warm air to accelerate solvent evaporation [24], use of protease enzyme inhibitors [25] [26] [27] [28] [29], use of collagen cross-linkers [30] [31] [32], and rubbing action during the adhesive application [33] [34]. While these strategies have been proved quite effective under laboratory and short-term in vivo conditions [26,31,35–38], only a few have been translated to a controlled clinical testing [39] [40] [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Resin-dentin bond strength durability testing has been extensively used to evaluate the effectiveness of adhesive systems and the applicability of new strategies to improve that property. Clinical effectiveness is determined by the survival rates of restorations placed in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). While there is evidence that the bond strength data generated in laboratory studies somehow correlates with the clinical outcome of NCCL restorations, it is questionable whether the knowledge of bonding mechanisms obtained from laboratory testing can be used to justify clinical performance of resin-dentin bonds. There are significant morphological and structural differences between the bonding substrate used in in vitro testing versus the substrate encountered in NCCL. These differences qualify NCCL as a hostile substrate for bonding, yielding bond strengths that are usually lower than those obtained in normal dentin. However, clinical survival time of NCCL restorations often surpass the durability of normal dentin tested in the laboratory. Likewise, clinical reports on the long-term survival rates of posterior composite restorations defy the relatively rapid rate of degradation of adhesive interfaces reported in laboratory studies. This article critically analyzes how the effectiveness of adhesive systems is currently measured, to identify gaps in knowledge where new research could be encouraged. The morphological and chemical analysis of bonded interfaces of resin composite restorations in teeth that had been in clinical service for many years, but were extracted for periodontal reasons, could be a useful tool to observe the ultrastructural characteristics of restorations that are regarded as clinically acceptable. This could help determine how much degradation is acceptable for clinical success.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2012; 28(1):72-86. DOI:10.1016/ · 3.77 Impact Factor
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