Transcription of T cell-related genes in teleost fish, and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a model.
ABSTRACT In recent years the cloning of genes coding for immuno-regulatory peptides, as well as the sequencing of genomes, provided fish immunologists with a growing amount of information on nucleotide sequences. Research is now also addressed in investigating the functional immunology counterpart of nucleotide sequence transcripts in various fish species. In this respect, studies on functional immunology of T cell activities are still at their beginning, and much work is needed to investigate T cell responses in teleost fish species. In this review we summarise the current knowledge on the group of genes coding for main T cell-related peptides in fish, and the expression levels of these genes in organs and tissues. Particular attention is paid to European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine species in which some information on functional immunology has been obtained, and we reassume here the expression of some T cell-related genes in basal conditions. In addition, we provide original data showing that T cells purified from the intestinal mucosa of sea bass with a specific mAb, express transcripts for TRβ, TRγ, CD8α, and RAG-1, thus showing similarities with intra-epithelial leucocytes of mammals.
Article: TGF-β1 exerts opposing effects on grass carp leukocytes: implication in teleost immunity, receptor signaling and potential self-regulatory mechanisms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In fish immunity, the regulatory role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has not been fully characterized. Here we examined the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in grass carp peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and head kidney leukocytes (HKL). It is interesting that TGF-β1 consistently stimulated the cell viability and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnfα and Ifnγ) and T/B cell markers [Cd4-like (Cd4l), Cd8α, Cd8β and Igμ] in PBL, which contrasted with its inhibitory tone in HKL. Further studies showed that grass carp TGF-β1 type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), was indispensable for the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in PBL and HKL. Notably, TGF-β1 persistently attenuated ALK5 expression, whereas immunoneutralization of endogenous grass carp TGF-β1 could increase ALK5 mRNA and protein levels. It is consistent with the observation that TGF-β1 decreased the number of ALK5(+) leukocytes in PBL and HKL, revealing a negative regulation of TGF-β1 signaling at the receptor level. Moreover, transient treatment with TGF-β1 for 24 h was sufficient to induce similar cellular responses compared with the continuous treatment. This indicated a possible mechanism by which TGF-β1 triggered the down-regulation of ALK5 mRNA and protein, leading to the desensitization of grass carp leukocytes toward TGF-β1. Accordingly, our data revealed a dual role of TGF-β1 in teleost immunity in which it can serve as a positive or negative control device and provided additional mechanistic insights as to how TGF-β1 controls its signaling in vertebrate leukocytes.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35011. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular and molecular data have evidenced a gut-associated lymphoid tissue in a variety of teleost species, abundantly containing T cells, whose origin, selection and functions are still unclear. This study reports CD4, CD8-α, MHCI-α, MHCII-β, rag-1 and TCR-β gene transcription along the intestine (anterior, middle and posterior segments) and in the thymus of one year-old Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Real-time PCR findings depicted a main role of the thymus in T-cell development, but also rag-1 and CD8-α transcripts are detected in the intestine, having significant expression in the posterior segment. In the whole intestine TCR-β and CD8-α exceeded CD4 transcripts. RNA ISH confirmed these data and detailed that mucosal CD8-α+ cells were especially numerous in the epithelium and in aggregates in the lamina propria. Regional differences in T-cell-specific gene expressions are first described in the intestine of a bony fish. High non-specific cytotoxic activity against xenogeneic and allogeneic cells was found in lymphocytes purified from the intestinal mucosa, providing further insight into their local defence roles.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 02/2011; 30(2):609-17. · 3.32 Impact Factor
Article: Characterisation and expression analysis of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12β and IFNγ.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genes encoding the five Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-11b, IL-12βc, and interferon (IFN) γ, were cloned and characterised at a molecular level. The genomic organisation of the halibut cytokine genes was similar to that seen in mammals and/or other fish species. Several mRNA instability motifs were found within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of all cytokine cDNA sequences. The putative cytokine protein sequences showed a low sequence identity with the corresponding homologues in mammals, avian and other fish species. Nevertheless, important structural features were presumably conserved such as the presence, or absence in the case of IL-1β, of a signal peptide, secondary structure and family signature motifs. The relative expression pattern of the cytokine genes was analyzed in several halibut organs, revealing a constitutive expression in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Interestingly, the gills showed a relatively high expression of IL-1β, IL-12βc and IFNγ. The real time RT-PCR data also showed that the mRNA level of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12βc and IFNγ was high in the thymus, while IL-11b was relatively highly expressed in the posterior kidney and posterior gut. Moreover, the halibut brain showed a relatively high level of IL-6 transcripts. Anterior kidney leucocytes in vitro stimulated with imiquimod showed a significant increase in mRNA level of the five halibut cytokine genes. The sequence and characterisation data presented here will be useful for further investigation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in halibut, and be helpful in the design of vaccines for the control of various infectious diseases.Molecular Biology Reports 06/2011; 39(3):2201-13. · 2.93 Impact Factor