Insider Influence on ErbB Activity
ABSTRACT The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB is activated by ligand-induced dimerization, leading to transphosphorylation of the cytoplasmic kinase domains. Bill et al. (2010) now demonstrate that transphosphorylation can be modulated from within the cell by the cytoplasmic protein cytohesin, providing new insights into ErbB-dependent processes during normal development and cancer.
SourceAvailable from: Michael C Corballis
Article: The Evolution of Language[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Language, whether spoken or signed, can be viewed as a gestural system, evolving from the so-called mirror system in the primate brain. In nonhuman primates the gestural system is well developed for the productions and perception of manual action, especially transitive acts involving the grasping of objects. The emergence of bipedalism in the hominins freed the hands for the adaptation of the mirror system for intransitive acts for communication, initially through the miming of events. With the emergence of the genus Homo from some 2 million years ago, pressures for more complex communication and increased vocabulary size led to the conventionalization of gestures, the loss of iconic representation, and a gradual shift to vocal gestures replacing manual ones-although signed languages are still composed of manual and facial gestures. In parallel with the conventionalization of symbols, languages gained grammatical complexity, perhaps driven by the evolution of episodic memory and mental time travel, which involve combinations of familiar elements--Who did what to whom, when, where, and why? Language is thus adapted to allow us to share episodic structures, whether past, planned, or fictional, and so increase survival fitness.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 04/2009; 1156(1):19-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04423.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Much current discussion of the evolution of language has concerned the emergence of a stage in which single vocal or gestural signals were used symbolically. Assuming the existence of such a stage, the present review decomposes the emergence of modern language into nine partially ordered steps, each of which contributes to precision and variety of expression. Bickerton's proposed 'protolanguage' falls somewhere in the middle of this succession. In addition to the by-now accepted evidence from language learning, language disorders, and ape language experiments, modern languages provide evidence of these stages of evolution through the presence of detectable 'fossils' in vocabulary and grammar.Trends in Cognitive Sciences 08/1999; 3(7):272-279. DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01333-9 · 21.15 Impact Factor