Retrieval practice: a simple strategy for improving memory after traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Memory impairment is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but interventions to improve memory in persons with TBI have been ineffective. Retrieval practice is a robust memory strategy among healthy undergraduates, whereby practice retrieving information shortly after it is presented leads to better delayed recall than simple restudy. In a verbal paired associate paradigm, we investigated the effect of retrieval practice relative to massed and spaced restudy on delayed recall in 14 persons with chronic memory impairment following a TBI and 14 age-matched healthy controls. A significant learning condition (massed restudy, spaced restudy, retrieval practice) by group (TBI, healthy) interaction emerged, whereby only healthy controls benefited from spaced restudy (i.e., distributed learning) over massed restudy, but both groups greatly benefited from retrieval practice over massed and spaced restudy. That is, retrieval practice greatly improves memory in persons with TBI, even when other mnemonic strategies (e.g., distributed learning) are less effective.
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ABSTRACT: In the last couple of years, there has been a dramatic increase in laboratory research examining the benefits of recall testing on long-term learning and retention. This work was largely on the backward effect of testing, which shows that retrieval practice on previously studied information, compared to restudy of the same material, renders the information more likely to be remembered in the future. Going beyond this prominent work, more recent laboratory research provided evidence that there is also a forward effect of testing, which shows that recall testing of previously studied information can enhance learning of subsequently presented new information. Here, we provide a review of research on this forward effect of testing. The review shows that the effect is a well replicated phenomenon in laboratory studies that has been observed for both veridical information and misinformation. In particular, the review demonstrates that the effect may be applied to educational and clinical settings, enhancing learning in students and reducing memory deficits in clinical populations. The review discusses current theoretical explanations of the forward effect of testing and provides suggestions for future research directions.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:286. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate if retrieval practice [RP] improves delayed recall after short and long delays in survivors of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), relative to massed restudy [MR] and spaced restudy [SR]. 3(learning condition: MR, SR, RP) X 2(delayed recall: 30 minutes, 1 week) within-subjects experiment SETTING: non-profit medical rehabilitation research center. Ten memory-impaired (<5th percentile) survivors of severe TBI INTERVENTION: During RP, patients are quizzed on to-be-learned information shortly after it is presented, such that patients practice retrieval. MR consists of repeated restudy (i.e., cramming). SR consists of restudy trials separated in time (i.e., distributed learning). Forty-eight verbal paired associates (VPAs) were equally divided across three learning conditions (16 per condition). Delayed recall for half of VPAs was assessed after 30 minutes (8 per condition), and half after one week (8 per condition). There was a very large effect of learning condition after the short delay (p<.001; η2=.72), with much better recall of VPAs studied through RP (46.3%) relative to MR (12.5%) and SR (15.0%). This large effect of learning condition remained after the long delay (p=.001; η2=.56), as patients recalled 11.3% of VPAs studied through RP, but nothing through MR (0.0%) and only 1.3% through SR. That is, RP was essentially the only learning condition to result in successful recall after one week, with most patients recalling at least one VPA. The robust effect of RP among TBI survivors with severe memory impairment engenders confidence that this strategy would work outside the laboratory to improve memory in real-life settings. Future randomized controlled trials of RP training are needed.Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 11/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury results in complex cognitive sequelae. Impairments in memory are among the most common sequelae resulting in significant functional problems. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) was formed to develop recommendations for the management of impairments in memory.The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 07/2014; 29(4):369-386.