Triple negativity and young age as prognostic factors in lymph node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma of 1 cm or less

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
BMC Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.36). 10/2010; 10(1):557. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-557
Source: PubMed


Whether a systemic adjuvant treatment is needed is an area of controversy in patients with node-negative early breast cancer with tumor size of ≤1 cm, including T1mic.
We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and pathology data of all consecutive patients with node-negative T1mic, T1a, and T1b invasive ductal carcinoma who received surgery between Jan 2000 and Dec 2006. The recurrence free survival (RFS) and risk factors for recurrence were identified.
Out of 3889 patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 375 patients were enrolled (T1mic:120, T1a:93, T1b:162). Median age at diagnosis was 49. After a median follow up of 60.8 months, 12 patients developed recurrences (T1mic:4 (3.3%), T1a:2 (2.2%), T1b:6 (3.7%)), with a five-year cumulative RFS rate of 97.2%. Distant recurrence was identified in three patients. Age younger than 35 years (HR 4.91; 95% CI 1.014-23.763, p = 0.048) and triple negative disease (HR 4.93; 95% CI 1.312-18.519, p = 0.018) were significantly associated with a higher rate of recurrence. HER2 overexpression, Ki-67, and p53 status did not affect RFS.
Prognosis of node-negative breast cancer with T1mic, T1a and T1b is excellent, but patients under 35 years of age or with triple negative disease have a relatively high risk of recurrence.

Download full-text


Available from: Eui Kyu Chie,
53 Reads
  • Source
    • "Kwon et al. [24] reported that among 375 patients with T1mic, a, b NO breast tumors, age younger than 35 years was associated with higher recurrence rate (HR 4.91; 95% CI 1.014–23.763, p = 0.048) [23] [24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small (T1a, b), lymph node negative breast tumors represent an entity diagnosed with increasing frequency due to the implementation of wide-scale screening programs. Patients bearing such tumors usually exhibit favorable long-term outcomes, with low breast cancer mortality rates at 10 years, even in the absence of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, most available data derive from retrospective studies. Additionally, a subset of patients with these tumors experience recurrence of the disease, indicating that early tumor stage itself is not a sufficient prognosticator. It is of paramount importance to refine the prognosis of this population, identifying patients with high risk of recurrence, for whom adjuvant treatment is needed. The underlying biology of the disease provides relevant information, such as grade and status of hormone receptors and HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), with high grade, triple negative and HER-2-positive tumors having worse prognosis. Additionally, multigene signatures may improve further the prognostication of patients with small, node negative breast cancers. Further research for this increasingly frequent group of patients is urgently needed, so that better informed clinical decision making, in particular regarding adjuvant chemotherapy, can occur.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 10/2014; 40(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2014.09.004 · 7.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "5-year DFS according to cohorts and significant parameters at Cox analysis J Cancer Res Clin Oncol (2013) 139:853–860 857 Another recent evaluation concerning the risk of recurrence for small node-negative breast cancer by age and tumor subtypes showed that, after adjusting for subtype and other tumor characteristics, patients B35 years had greater risk of worse RFS compared to patients older than 50 years and confirmed the unfavorable outcome of Her-2 positive and triple negative T1a and b tumors (Theriault et al. 2011). A worse outcome for TN node-negative pT1a, b breast cancer was reported in three other retrospective evaluations on small series of 47 (Lai et al. 2011), 110 (Kaplan et al. 2009), and 56 patients (Kwon et al. 2010), respectively. In a recent small French series, 75 patients with pT1a, b, node-negative, Her-2-positive tumors were identified, and 44 % received chemotherapy and trastuzumab; even if numbers are very small, recurrences occurred only in the group receiving hormonal treatment and not receiving chemotherapy and trastuzumab (Rodrigues et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Recurrences and deaths are known to occur, even if less frequently, in small, node-negative breast cancer patients, and decision on adjuvant treatments remains controversial. In the present analysis, we evaluate recurrence risk in patients with pT1 a, b, c, node-negative, breast cancer, accordingly with some prognostic biological factors. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 900 node-negative patients (pT1a, b, c) surgery treated between 2000 and 2009 in four Italian oncologic centers. We defined 3 different cohorts: ER positive (ER+); Her-2 positive (Her-2+); and triple negative (TN). Results pT1a was seen in 7.6% of patients, 37.7 % pT1b, 54.8 % pT1c. Concerning the 3 different cohorts, 58.2 % were ER+; 10.8 % were Her-2+; 8.2 % were TN. Overall, chemotherapy was given to 3.0 %, 27.2 %, 69.8 % of pT1a, b, c, respectively, and to 22.7 %, 58.8 %, 68.9 % of ER+, Her-2+, TN subgroups. At a median follow-up of 67 months, 5-year DFS was 96.3 %, 89.2 %, 89.4 % in pT1a, b, c, respectively (100 %, 93.6 %, 89.8 % in ER+; 100 %, 78.7 %, 85.0 % in Her-2+; 100 %, 76.8 %, 85.2 % in TN) (p = ns). At multivariate analysis, histologic grade and Ki-67 resulted independent prognostic factors. Overall, 5-year OS was 98 %, without differences among pT1a, b, c, or among the 3 cohorts. Conclusions Overall, 5-year DFS was very favorable in this series of small, node-negative breast cancers, but Her-2+ and TN cohorts have a higher recurrence rate than ER+ cohort (p < 0.0001); pT1c, but also pT1b, in Her-2+ and TN subgroups, have a worse outcome, and effective chemotherapy treatment should be considered in these unfavorable subgroups.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 02/2013; 139(5). DOI:10.1007/s00432-013-1388-2 · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For patients in intensive care units (ICUs), control of blood glucose level is an important factor in reducing serious complications and mortality. Standard protocols for glucose control in ICUs have been based on infrequent glucose measurements, look-up tables to determine the appropriate insulin infusion rates, and bedside administration of the insulin infusion by ICU staff. In this paper a new automatic control strategy is proposed based on frequent glucose measurements and a self-tuning control technique. During a short initial time period when manual glucose control is performed using a standard protocol, a simple dynamic model of the glucose–insulin system is identified in real time using recursive least squares. Then an adaptive PID controller is tuned, based on the model parameters, and the controller is turned on. A simulation study based on detailed physiological models of the glucose–insulin dynamics demonstrates that the proposed control strategy performs better than standard protocols for insulin infusion.
    Journal of Process Control 03/2011; 21(3):331-342. DOI:10.1016/j.jprocont.2010.07.003 · 2.65 Impact Factor
Show more