Measuring core body temperature in a manner that is safe for animals and veterinary personnel is an important part of a physical examination. For nonhuman primates, this can involve increased restraint, additional stress, as well as the use of anesthetics and their deleterious effects on body temperature measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare two non-invasive methods of infrared tympanic thermometry to standard rectal thermometry in adult squirrel monkeys.
Tympanic temperatures were collected from 37 squirrel monkeys and compared to rectal temperatures using a human and veterinary infrared tympanic thermometer.
Compared with rectal temperature measurements, the human tympanic thermometer readings were not significantly different, while the veterinary tympanic thermometer measurements were significantly higher (P<0.05). There were no differences between sexes.
The tympanic thermometer designed for use in humans can be used in adult squirrel monkeys as an alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature.
"As a result, strict biosecurity precautions are recommended when handling them (Brady 2000). Obtaining a core body temperature is recognised as being an essential component of a comprehensive physical examination in non-human primates (Long et al. 2011), but handling primates to obtain a core body temperature raises issues of occupational health (Long et al. 2011) and patient welfare, as the capture and handling of nonhuman primates not habituated to the process is recognised to be stressful and potentially detrimental to welfare (Rodas-Martínez et al. 2013). This study attempted to establish the utility of noninvasive facial thermography as a proxy for invasive core body temperature measurements, to minimise the potential for human and animal safety and welfare problems. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A group of 39 captive common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) had their body temperature
measurements compared by rectal thermometry and facial infrared thermal imaging (Flir i3, Flir
Systems Inc.). Squirrel monkeys were caught up and manually restrained for examination and
temperature determination as part of routine health checks. The mean difference between rectal
temperature and maximum facial thermography temperatures was 3.4° C (95% confidence interval =
3.1–3.7° C). The repeatability coefficient of maximum facial temperatures was 3.18° C at a 95% CI. The
Pearson correlation coefficient for maximum facial thermography temperatures compared to rectal
temperatures was -0.10 (95% CI = -0.27–0.07). This study found no meaningful correlation between
facial thermography and rectal temperatures in common squirrel monkeys. Facial thermography had
poor accuracy and poor precision compared to rectal temperature measurement. Facial thermography
does not appear to be a useful means of detecting altered body temperature in captive common
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the Bland-Altman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 °C with a 95% agreement limit of ± 1.27 °C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 05/2013; 52(3):295-300. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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