Comparison of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal dairy calves fed colostrum or bovine serum-based colostrum replacement and colostrum supplement products

Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 10/2010; 237(8):949-54. DOI: 10.2460/javma.237.8.949
Source: PubMed


To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations In neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product.
Randomized controlled clinical trial.
18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves.
141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided≤2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n=146) were fed 2 L of a CR product≤2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed.
Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean±SD sTP concentration was 5.58±0.67 g/dL and 5.26±0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868±854 mg/dL and 1,320±620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations<1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups.
Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.

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Available from: Keith P Poulsen, Dec 27, 2013
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    • "Even so, preweaning morbidity and mortality risks did not differ between groups in this study [22]. Several studies reported that feeding a higher IgG mass (≥ 200 g of IgG) delivered using CR products resulted in greater IgG absorption and lower FPT risks [19,20,23]. However, these studies did not evaluate post-administration performance in terms of preweaning morbidity and mortality risks, feed intake, and weight gain for calves fed larger masses of IgG in the CR products evaluated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value = 0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value = 0.974 ), omphalitis (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value = 0.956), or mortality (HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value = 0.505) in the study calves. The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd.
    BMC Veterinary Research 08/2013; 9(1):168. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-9-168 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Varying reports have been published on the success of passive transfer when CR is used. Poulsen et al. (2010) found no significant difference in rates of passive transfer between a bovine serum-based CR and maternal colostrums . Conversely, Swan et al. (2007) found higher rates of failure of passive transfer when a CR was fed, which could impair health and survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maternal colostrum (MC), a plasma-derived (PDCR) or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer (CDCR) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves. Preplanned contrasts were performed for MC versus CR (PDCR combined with CDCR) and PDCR versus CDCR. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: MC (n = 49), 3.8 L of maternal colostrum; PDCR (n = 49), 550 g (1 dose; 150 g of IgG) of a PDCR; or CDCR (n = 49), 470 g (1 dose; 100 g IgG) of a CDCR. The best total protein cutoff for determining passive transfer was >5.2, 5.6, and 5.1 g/dL for MC, PDCR, and CDCR, respectively. Serum total protein was greater for calves fed MC (mean ± SE; 6.14 ± 0.11 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (5.29 ± 0.11 g/dL) and CDCR (5.27 ± 0.11 g/dL). Serum IgG concentrations were greater for calves fed MC (2,098 ± 108 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (927 ± 107 g/dL) or CDCR (1,139 ± 108 g/dL). Apparent efficiency of absorption was greater for CDCR than PDCR (38.8 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 3.0%). Adequate passive transfer was greatest for MC (91.8%), followed by CDCR (49%) and PDCR (28.6%). Calves fed MC had greater weaning weights and body weight gain than calves fed CR. Morbidity was lower for calves fed MC (46.9%) than for calves fed PDCR (71.4%) or CDCR (67.3%). Calves fed MC tended to have lower mortality than calves fed CR. Given the conditions of this trial, feeding 3.8 L of MC was superior to feeding one dose of CR. Further research is needed to evaluate calf performance when a higher dose of CR is fed.
    Journal of Dairy Science 03/2013; 96(5). DOI:10.3168/jds.2012-6339 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "INDEX TERMS: Propionibacterium acnes, OVA, immunostimulant, goat kids, immunitary response. Gay 1994, Constant et al. 1994, Johnson et al. 2007, Godden et al. 2008, Poulsen et al. 2010, Moretti et al. 2012). These substitutes are lyophilized bovine colostrum or bovine serum-based colostrum which are commercial available to use directly to animals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immunostimulants are susbstances that stimuli the response of effector cells to activate the immune response such as antigen uptake, cytokine release or antibody response. These substances can increase resistence to infection by different types of microorganisms, reducing dependence of antibiotics used in livestock animals. Recent reports have demonstrated the positive effect of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) to control animal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the non-specific immunostimulant P. acnes on immunological functions and growth performance in goat kids. Twenty five goat kids served as control group (A) and another 25 animals received P. acnes being the experimental group (B). Kids were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to assess humoral immunity. To assess in vivo cell immunity, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) test with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used, clinical signs and body weight were recorded each week until 9 weeks of age when the experiment ended. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum proteins fractions and anti-OVA specific antibodies. No clinical signs of disease and no differences (p>0.05) on body weight between groups were recorded (7.32±0.81 kg in group A, 7.13±0.65 kg in group B). Goat kids from group B had more total protein (59.8±5g/l) and albumin levels (32.8±3.3g/l) than goat kids from group A (56.6±5.7 g/l, 29.6±3.9 g/l respectively) (p<0.05). DTH response in goat kids from group B on day 42 was higher (p<0.05) than group A. At day 63, goat kids from group receiving P. acnes had higher percentage (85.4) of anti-OVA IgM titers (p<0.05) than control group (57.7). In conclusion, the results showed that oral administration of P. acnes to goat kids improved some aspects of the immune system of the animals and it could be used to control goat diseases.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 01/2013; 33:5-10. DOI:10.1590/S0100-736X2013000100002 · 0.36 Impact Factor
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