Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis.

Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 10/2010; 467(7317):863-7. DOI: 10.1038/nature09413
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Apoptotic cells release 'find-me' signals at the earliest stages of death to recruit phagocytes. The nucleotides ATP and UTP represent one class of find-me signals, but their mechanism of release is not known. Here, we identify the plasma membrane channel pannexin 1 (PANX1) as a mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release from apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PANX1 led to decreased nucleotide release and monocyte recruitment by apoptotic cells. Conversely, PANX1 overexpression enhanced nucleotide release from apoptotic cells and phagocyte recruitment. Patch-clamp recordings showed that PANX1 was basally inactive, and that induction of PANX1 currents occurred only during apoptosis. Mechanistically, PANX1 itself was a target of effector caspases (caspases 3 and 7), and a specific caspase-cleavage site within PANX1 was essential for PANX1 function during apoptosis. Expression of truncated PANX1 (at the putative caspase cleavage site) resulted in a constitutively open channel. PANX1 was also important for the 'selective' plasma membrane permeability of early apoptotic cells to specific dyes. Collectively, these data identify PANX1 as a plasma membrane channel mediating the regulated release of find-me signals and selective plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis, and a new mechanism of PANX1 activation by caspases.


Available from: Jason M Kinchen, Apr 27, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RT is commonly used to treat malignant tumors. However, tumor regrowth is a major limitation to RT as an antitumor treatment. In the present study, we investigated the tumor-promoting effects of high-dose (or ablative) RT treatments on tumor-bearing mice. We focused on the role of macrophages that interact with IR-CCs in the TME, which cause tumor regrowth. We observed that CT26(H-2(d)) tumor growth was enhanced by i.v. injection of IR-CT26 cells compared with NR control CT26 cells. The levels of iNOS gene expression and NO production from RAW264.7 macrophages (H-2(d)) in response to the interaction with IR-CT26 cells were higher than with NR-CT26 cells. When CT26 tumor-bearing mice were treated i.v. with L-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor, the reduction in in vivo tumor growth was higher in the IR-CT26-injected group compared with the NR-CT26-injected control group. In vivo CT26 tumor growth was decreased after transplanting PEM extracted from L-NMMA-treated, tumor-bearing mice. Although iNOS activity was reduced by inhibiting TLR1 expression with TLR1-siRNA, it was enhanced by TLR1 overexpression. Transcriptional activation and protein expression levels of iNOS were also decreased in the presence of TLR1-siRNA but increased as a result of TLR1 overexpression. These results demonstrate that postradiotherapeutic tumor regrowth may be caused by interaction of IR-CCs with macrophages that induce TLR1-mediated iNOS expression and NO production. Our data suggest that iNOS in macrophages could be a useful target to regulate postradiotherapeutic responses in hosts and subsequently limit tumor regrowth. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both purinergic signaling through nucleotides such as ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and noradrenergic signaling through molecules such as norepinephrine regulate vascular tone and blood pressure. Pannexin1 (Panx1), which forms large-pore, ATP-releasing channels, is present in vascular smooth muscle cells in peripheral blood vessels and participates in noradrenergic responses. Using pharmacological approaches and mice conditionally lacking Panx1 in smooth muscle cells, we found that Panx1 contributed to vasoconstriction mediated by the α1 adrenoreceptor (α1AR), whereas vasoconstriction in response to serotonin or endothelin-1 was independent of Panx1. Analysis of the Panx1-deficient mice showed that Panx1 contributed to blood pressure regulation especially during the night cycle when sympathetic nervous activity is highest. Using mimetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a specific amino acid sequence in the Panx1 intracellular loop that is essential for activation by α1AR signaling. Collectively, these data describe a specific link between noradrenergic and purinergic signaling in blood pressure homeostasis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science Signaling 02/2015; 8(364):ra17. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2005824 · 7.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pannexin2 (Panx2) is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the nervous system.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:468. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00468 · 4.18 Impact Factor