Sun-Induced Nonsynonymous p53 Mutations Are Extensively Accumulated and Tolerated in Normal Appearing Human Skin
ABSTRACT Here we demonstrate that intermittently sun-exposed human skin contains an extensive number of phenotypically intact cell compartments bearing missense and nonsense mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Deep sequencing of sun-exposed and shielded microdissected skin from mid-life individuals revealed that persistent p53 mutations had accumulated in 14% of all epidermal cells, with no apparent signs of a growth advantage of the affected cell compartments. Furthermore, 6% of the mutated epidermal cells encoded a truncated protein. The abundance of these events, not taking into account intron mutations and mutations in other genes that also may have functional implications, suggests an extensive tolerance of human cells to severe genetic alterations caused by UV light, with an estimated annual rate of accumulation of ∼35,000 new persistent protein-altering p53 mutations in sun-exposed skin of a human individual.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Patrik L Ståhl, Sep 01, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Julia Frede[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Developments in lineage tracing in mouse models have revealed how stem cells maintain normal squamous and glandular epithelia. Here we review recent quantitative studies tracing the fate of individual mutant stem cells which have uncovered how common oncogenic mutations alter cell behaviour, creating clones with a growth advantage that may persist long term. In the intestine this occurs by a mutant clone colonizing an entire crypt, whilst in the squamous oesophagus blocking differentiation creates clones that expand to colonize large areas of epithelium, a phenomenon known as field change. We consider the implications of these findings for early cancer evolution and the cancer stem cell hypothesis, and the prospects of targeted cancer prevention by purging mutant clones from normal appearing epithelia.The Journal of Pathology 11/2014; 234(3). DOI:10.1002/path.4409 · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biological tools such as genetic lineage tracing, three-dimensional confocal microscopy and next-generation DNA sequencing are providing new ways to quantify the distribution of clones of normal and mutated cells. Understanding population-wide clone size distributions in vivo is complicated by multiple cell types within observed tissues, and overlapping birth and death processes. This has led to the increased need for mathematically informed models to understand their biological significance. Standard approaches usually require knowledge of clonal age. We show that modelling on clone size independent of time is an alternative method that offers certain analytical advantages; it can help parametrize these models, and obtain distributions for counts of mutated or proliferating cells, for example. When applied to a general birth-death process common in epithelial progenitors, this takes the form of a gambler's ruin problem, the solution of which relates to counting Motzkin lattice paths. Applying this approach to mutational processes, alternative, exact, formulations of classic Luria-Delbrück-type problems emerge. This approach can be extended beyond neutral models of mutant clonal evolution. Applications of these approaches are twofold. First, we resolve the probability of progenitor cells generating proliferating or differentiating progeny in clonal lineage tracing experiments in vivo or cell culture assays where clone age is not known. Second, we model mutation frequency distributions that deep sequencing of subclonal samples produce.Journal of The Royal Society Interface 10/2014; 11(99). DOI:10.1098/rsif.2014.0654 · 3.86 Impact Factor
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 11/2012; 25(6). DOI:10.1111/pcmr.12019 · 5.64 Impact Factor