Effects of a Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Analog on Endogenous GH Pulsatility and Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men
ABSTRACT Strategies to augment pulsatile GH may be beneficial in patients with excess visceral adiposity, in whom GH secretion is reduced. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a novel GHRH (GHRH(1-44)) analog, tesamorelin, on endogenous GH pulsatility and insulin sensitivity in healthy men.
Thirteen males (mean age 45 ± 3 yr and body mass index 27.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) received tesamorelin 2 mg sc once daily for 2 wk, with assessment made at baseline, after 2 wk of treatment, and after 2 wk of withdrawal.
The primary end point was change in mean overnight GH as determined by overnight frequent sampling. Secondary end points included insulin-stimulated glucose uptake as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp; IGF-I; and GH secretion parameters, including pulse area, pulse frequency, and basal secretion.
Tesamorelin treatment increased mean overnight GH (change +0.5 ± 0.1 μg/liter, P = 0.004), average log(10) GH peak area (change +0.4 ± 0.1 log(10) μg/liter, P = 0.001), and basal GH secretion (change +0.008 ± 0.003 μg/liter · min, P = 0.008). IGF-I increased by 181 ± 22 μg/liter (P < 0.0001). Neither fasting glucose (P = 0.93) nor insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (P = 0.61) was significantly affected by tesamorelin.
Once-daily short-term treatment with a GHRH(1-44) analog, tesamorelin, augments basal and pulsatile GH secretion. Moreover, although tesamorelin significantly increases IGF-I, peripheral insulin-stimulated glucose uptake appears to be preserved.
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ABSTRACT: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with reductions in endogenous GH secretion, possibly as a result of hyperinsulinemia, increased circulating free fatty acid, increased somatostatin tone, and reduced ghrelin. Reduced GH may, in turn, further exacerbate visceral fat accumulation because of decreased hormone sensitive lipolysis in this depot. Data from multiple populations demonstrate that both reduced GH and increased VAT appear to contribute independently to dyslipidemia, increased systemic inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. The reductions in GH in states of visceral adiposity are characterized by reduced basal and pulsatile GH secretion with intact pulse frequency. Treatment with GH releasing hormone (GHRH) provides a means to reverse these abnormalities, increasing endogenous basal and pulsatile GH secretion without altering pulse frequency. This review describes data from HIV-infected individuals and individuals with general obesity showing that treatment with GHRH significantly reduces visceral fat, ameliorates dyslipidemia, and reduces markers of cardiovascular risk. Further research is needed regarding long term efficacy and safety of this treatment modality.Growth Hormone & IGF Research 12/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ghir.2014.12.005 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential impact of tesamorelin on CYP3A activity was investigated by examining its effect on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and ritonavir. In two randomized, two-way crossover studies, subjects were administered 2 mg tesamorelin on Days 1–7 with 80 mg simvastatin or 100 mg ritonavir co-administered on Day 6 (Treatment A), and a single dose of simvastatin or ritonavir alone on Day 6 (Treatment B). Pharmacokinetic samples were collected on Day 6 to measure simvastatin, ritonavir and tesamorelin plasma concentrations. For simvastatin, A/B ratios of least squares geometric means and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for AUC0−t, AUC0−inf and Cmax were contained within the usual no effect range of 80–125%. For ritonavir, ratios and 90% CIs for AUCs were within this acceptance range, but the lower CI for Cmax was 74.8%, suggesting a decreased rate of exposure. However, since the A/B ratios for AUCs and Cmax parameters were approximately 90%, these were minor decreases and no dose adjustment of ritonavir is required in the presence of tesamorelin. These studies showed that the impact of tesamorelin on CYP3A activity appears to be minimal, if any. Either medication may be co-administered with tesamorelin in patients without changing their original dosing regimen.07/2013; 2(3). DOI:10.1002/cpdd.27
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Tesamorelin is a synthetic analogue of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), which increases basal and pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion and subsequently increases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Limited information is available about the pharmacokinetics of this compound. Consequently, the aim of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of tesamorelin in HIV-infected patients and healthy subjects. Methods A total of 38 HIV-infected patients and healthy subjects receiving subcutaneous tesamorelin doses of 1 or 2 mg administered daily during 14 consecutive days were included in the analysis. An open one-compartment model with first- and zero-order absorption and first-order elimination was developed to best describe the data using NONMEM® VII. The effect of different covariates on tesamorelin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Model evaluation was performed using predictive checks and non-parametric bootstrap. Results Plasma clearance and its interindividual variability [% coefficient of variation (CV)] was estimated to be 1,060 L/h (33.6 %). Volume of distribution was calculated to be 200 L (17.7 %). Age, body size measures, race and health status were not related to tesamorelin pharmacokinetic parameters within the range of covariates studied. The fraction of tesamorelin absorbed by a first-order process is 13.1 % higher on day 14 compared with day 1. Predictive checks and non-parametric bootstrap demonstrated that the model is appropriate in describing the time course of tesamorelin plasma concentrations in both HIV-infected patients and healthy subjects. Conclusions An open one-compartment model with first and zero order absorption processes and linear elimination is suitable to characterize the pharmacokinetics of tesamorelin. The fraction of tesamorelin absorbed by a first-order process evolves with time. No clinically relevant covariates were identified as predictors of tesamorelin pharmacokinetics.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 10/2014; 54(3). DOI:10.1007/s40262-014-0202-x · 5.49 Impact Factor