Bone transport and compression-distraction in the treatment of bone loss of the lower limbs.
ABSTRACT A clinical series of 17 adult patients operated due to significant by bone loss of the long bones of the lower extremity (3 femurs and 11 tibias), is presented. Their management consisted of 6 bone transports (6 tibias) and 11 compression distraction procedures (3 femurs and 8 tibiae) using monolateral external fixators. Bone loss ranged from 3.9 cm to 14.7 cm. Mean healing time was 301 days with a mean healing index of 45.6 days for cm of lengthening achieved. The clinical and radiological results were excellent in 9, good in 6 and fair in 2 patients according to the utilised criteria of assessment. Consolidation was achieved in all but one patient who developed an aseptic stiff non-union. Two patients developed residual limb-length discrepancy less than 1.5 cm, three tibias ended up with less than 5° of valgus deviation. In two cases the half-pins were re-inserted due to early loosening. In two cases reoperation was needed for late bending of the callus after fixator removal. Three cases of bone transport and 1 case of compression distraction needed bone grafting at the docking site. Bone transport and compression-distraction are effective methods for treating bone loss in the lower extremity. It is suggested that the compression-distraction technique is preferable, since this is associated with a lower incidence of complications than bone transport procedures. The deciding factor, however, is the actual extent of the bone loss.
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ABSTRACT: A series of cases of reamed intramedullary nailings carried out after complications in regenerated bone and docking site had occurred in bone transport is presented here. Nine patients (femur = 5; tibia = 4) had treatment with resection after open fractures or infection and underwent bone transport. The mean length of regenerated bone was 9.5 cm (range 6-18 cm). After bone transport, the fixator remained in place for a mean period of 12.8 months (range 8-24 months). In six cases (femur 4; tibia 2), the thickness of the cortical wall of the regenerate column was insufficient, and in two of these, there was, in addition, nonunion of the docking site. In the two tibial cases, nailing was carried out shortly after the fixator had been removed and after refracture of the regenerated bone had occurred due to insufficient cortical thickness. In one femur, nailing was carried out for nonunion of the docking site. Follow-up involved clinical and X-ray checks. The mean follow-up was 3.9 years (range 2-6 years). In all cases, union and with complete corticalization of the regenerate column was observed at an average 6 months after nailing (range 4-11 months). Infection occurred in one tibia 4 months after nailing. The infection was treated with antibiotics, and the nail was subsequently removed. We conclude that nailing is a potential solution for regenerated bone and docking site problems but, if used after prolonged periods of external fixation, may necessitate antibiotic therapy for at least 10 days after the fixator has been removed.Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction 07/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11751-014-0196-9
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ABSTRACT: The management of nonunion has remained a constant challenge. The associated bone defect, shortening, deformity and infection complicate the management. A mono-lateral external fixator may minimise some of the problems frequently encountered in these patients. We report our results of prospectively evaluated 37 consecutive patients regarding nonunion of lower-extremity long bones managed using a mono-lateral external fixator. A total of 37 patients (7 femurs and 30 tibias), mean age 36 years, were stabilised using a mono-lateral fixator for nonunion of long bones. The mean time since injury was 8 months. Fifteen cases were infected and they received debridement and antibiotic treatment as per culture and sensitivity reports. In cases where the bone gap or shortening was >3cm in the tibia and >5cm in the femur, corticotomy and bone transport (bifocal procedure) was done and in the remaining cases, only compression-distraction (monofocal procedure) was done. The bone and functional results were assessed at the end of treatment according to the criteria described by Paley et al. Union was achieved in 34 cases (91.9%). The average time for union was 5 months. Five cases were treated with the bifocal method and 32 cases were treated with the monofocal method. The average length gain in the bifocal method was 5.7cm, mean duration of treatment was 8.2 months and bone healing index (BHI) was 1.44monthscm(-1). In six cases, the monofocal treatment was used for limb lengthening. The average length gain was 1.9cm, mean duration of treatment was 4.83 months and BHI was 2.5monthscm(-1). Bone grafting was required in two cases at the docking site. The bone results were excellent in 24 cases, good in nine cases, fair in one case and poor in three cases. The functional results were excellent in 27 cases, good in six cases, fair in one case and poor in three cases. The most common complication in this series was pin-tract infection (11.5%). A mono-lateral external fixator is an effective method for treating nonunion in the lower extremity with or without bone loss. The nonunion site can be carefully controlled with simultaneous correction of angulation and length.Injury 11/2013; 45(3). DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2013.11.019 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Bone transport osteogenesis (BTO), distraction of a free portion of bone across a defect, offers an autologous solution to large cranial defects that may allow treatment without permanent hardware implantation. This study establishes a sheep model to evaluate the feasibility and distraction kinetics of BTO. Methods: Subtotal cranial defects (3.5 +/- 3.5 cm) were created in 10 young adult sheep and a transport segment (3.5 +/- 2 cm) traversed the defect at varying distraction rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm/day) using semi-buried cranial distractors. After a 6-week consolidation period, sheep were euthanized and the resultant bone was analyzed by CT, histology, and mechanical testing. Results: Gross examination, histology, and 3D CT revealed that control animals had fibrous nonunion whereas distraction animals had ossified defects with fibrous nonunion at the distal docking site. There was one premature consolidation in the 0.5 mm/day group. The volume of bony regenerate in the 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm/day distraction rate groups was statistically indistinct (P = 0.16). The mean flexural moduli (MPa) of non-decalcified samples from the control cranium, transport segment, and bone regenerate were found to be 4.50 +/- 4.9, 6.17 +/- 2.1, and 4.14 +/- 4.8, respectively (P = 0.24). Conclusions: This experiment provides proof of concept for BTO for large calvarial defects in a sheep model. Distraction at a rate of 0.5 mm per day may place individuals at higher risk for premature consolidation, but distraction rates did not have significant effects on regenerate quantity or quality. Future work will include the use of curvilinear distraction devices for 3-dimensional contour.Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 08/2014; 25(5). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000000987 · 0.68 Impact Factor