Oospores progenies from Phytophthora ramorum.
ABSTRACT Oospores of Phytophthora ramorum were produced from intraspecific pairings between a European A1 and European or American A2 strains. Their viability was evaluated through colouration with tetrazolium bromide. The distribution of oospores in the different classes of colouration was similar to that found in other Phytophthora species (homothallic and heterothallic): most of the oospores stained purple, which corresponds to spores in dormancy. In order to produce single-oospore cultures, a method was developed to separate oospores from mycelium and chlamydospores. Germination of oospores was observed in 110, 250, 350 and 500-d-old cultures at a low proportion. Microsatellite marker analyses on oospore progenies revealed that the oospores resulted from hybridisation. More than 50 oospore progenies were characterised in terms of mating type, aggressiveness on Rhododendron leaves, and growth rate on two different media. The results are discussed in the context of pest risk analysis.
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ABSTRACT: Invasive oomycete pathogens have been causing significant damage to native ecosystems worldwide for over a century. A recent well‐known example is Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death, which emerged in the 1990s in Europe and North America. In Europe, this pathogen is mainly restricted to woody ornamentals in nurseries and public greens, while severe outbreaks in the wild have only been reported in the UK. This study presents the results of the P. ramorum survey conducted in Swiss nurseries between 2003 and 2011. In all 120 nurseries subjected to the plant passport system, the main P. ramorum hosts were visually checked for above ground infections. Phytophthora species were isolated from tissue showing symptoms and identified on the basis of the morphological features of the cultures and sequencing of the ribosomal ITS region. Phytophthora was detected on 125 plants (66 Viburnum, 58 Rhododendron and one Pieris). Phytophthora ramorum was the most frequent species (59·2% of the plants), followed by P. plurivora, P. cactorum, P. citrophthora, P. cinnamomi, P. cactorum/P. hedraiandra, P. multivora and P. taxon PgChlamydo. The highest incidence of P. ramorum was observed on Viburnum × bodnantense. Microsatellite genotyping showed that the Swiss P. ramorum population is highly clonal and consists of seven genotypes (five previously reported in Europe, two new), all belonging to the European EU1 clonal lineage. It can therefore be assumed that P. ramorum entered Switzerland through nursery trade. Despite sanitation measures, repeated P. ramorum infections have been recorded in seven nurseries, suggesting either reintroduction or unsuccessful eradication efforts.Plant Pathology 01/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phytophthora ramorum is a recently introduced pathogen in Europe and North America consisting of three clonal lineages. Due to the limited intralineage genetic variation, only a few polymorphic markers are available for use in studies involving the epidemiology and evolution of P. ramorum. A total of 159 primer pairs for candidate polymorphic SSR loci were tested with universal labeling. Four polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified within the NA1 lineage and one within the NA2 lineage, demonstrating the power and flexibility of the screening technique. The markers may significantly increase the number of genotypes that can be identified and as such can help better characterize the North American lineages of P. ramorum.Mycologia 06/2011; 103(6):1245-9. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The functionality of the sexual cycle in the heterothallic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of Sudden Oak Death, has recently been demonstrated. Sexual reproduction could create genotypic variation and increase the pathogen's ability to adapt to other host plants or changing environments. Genetic characterization using co-dominant microsatellite markers and flow cytometry of single-oospore progeny of crosses between a European A1 isolate and North American or European A2 isolates revealed a considerable number of non-Mendelian inheritance events. This includes inheritance of more than two alleles at a locus and non-inheritance of alleles from one parent at another locus. The progenies were mitotically unstable: zoospore and hyphal tip derivatives of the progenies showed genotypic rearrangements and phenotypic variation. Flow cytometry confirmed variation and instability in DNA content of the single-oospore progenies. This indicates that single-oospore progenies not only display aberrant genomic and phenotypic variation due to meiotic irregularities, but also extra variation as a result of post-meiotic genomic rearrangements.Fungal Genetics and Biology 01/2011; 48(5):537-43. · 3.26 Impact Factor