Transcriptional activity analysis of promoter region of human PAX9 gene under dexamethasone, retinoic acid, and ergocalciferol treatment in MCF-7 and MDPC23

Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas-Unicamp, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Cell Biochemistry and Function (Impact Factor: 2.01). 10/2010; 28(7):555-64. DOI: 10.1002/cbf.1688
Source: PubMed


PAX9 gene is a member of the family homeobox of transcription factors and performs important function in development and organogenesis. Mutations in PAX9 coding sequences have been implicated in autosomal dominant oligodontia affecting predominantly permanent molars and second premolars. Previous studies have shown that PAX9 is required for secondary palate development and teratogens have been identified as inducers of a tooth and craniofacial malformations. This work focused on the analysis on the 5'-flanking region of the PAX9 gene studying the influence of retinoic acid, dexamethasone, and vitamin D on the expression of PAX9 by expression constructs that carry the reporter gene luciferase. As results, retinoic acid and dexamethasone showed progressive decrease of PAX9 expression. PAX9-pGL3B1 and PAX9-pGL3B2 promoter was inhibited under the treatment of dexamethasone and ergocalciferol. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone did not alter PAX9-pGL3B3 behavior indicating that sequences present between -1106 and +92 were important for the transcriptional activity of PAX9 promoter. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional activity of specific regions of the PAX9 promoter gene and we demonstrated that retinoic acid and ergocalciferol can modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX9 gene.

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    ABSTRACT: G-quadruplexes are secondary structures present in DNA and RNA molecules, which are formed by stacking of G-quartets (i.e., interaction of four guanines (G-tracts) bounded by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding). Human PAX9 intron 1 has a putative G-quadruplex-forming region located near exon 1, which is present in all known sequenced placental mammals. Using circular dichroism (CD) analysis and CD melting, we showed that these sequences are able to form highly stable quadruplex structures. Due to the proximity of the quadruplex structure to exon-intron boundary, we used a validated double-reporter splicing assay and qPCR to analyze its role on splicing efficiency. The human quadruplex was shown to have a key role on splicing efficiency of PAX9 intron 1, as a mutation that abolished quadruplex formation decreased dramatically the splicing efficiency of human PAX9 intron 1. The less stable, rat quadruplex had a less efficient splicing when compared to human sequences. Additionally, the treatment with 360A, a strong ligand that stabilizes quadruplex structures, further increased splicing efficiency of human PAX9 intron 1. Altogether, these results provide evidences that G-quadruplex structures are involved in splicing efficiency of PAX9 intron 1.
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