CLP-1 associates with MyoD and HDAC to restore skeletal muscle cell regeneration.
ABSTRACT Emerging evidence suggests that eukaryotic gene transcription is regulated primarily at the elongation stage by association and dissociation of the inhibitory protein cardiac lineage protein 1 (CLP-1/HEXIM1) from the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. It was reported recently that P-TEFb interacts with skeletal muscle-specific regulatory factor, MyoD, suggesting a linkage between CLP-1-mediated control of transcription and skeletal myogenesis. To examine this, we produced CLP-1 knockdown skeletal muscle C2C12 cells by homologous recombination, and demonstrated that the C2C12 CLP-1 +/- cells failed to differentiate when challenged by low serum in the medium. We also showed that CLP-1 interacts with both MyoD and histone deacetylases (HDACs) maximally at the early stage of differentiation of C2C12 cells. This led us to hypothesize that the association might be crucial to inhibition of MyoD-target proliferative genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the CLP-1/MyoD/HDAC complex binds to the promoter of the cyclin D1 gene, which is downregulated in differentiated muscle cells. These findings suggest a novel transcriptional paradigm whereby CLP-1, in conjunction with MyoD and HDAC, acts to inhibit growth-related gene expression, a requirement for myoblasts to exit the cell cycle and transit to myotubes.
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ABSTRACT: Many common causes of blindness involve the death of retinal photoreceptors followed by progressive inner retinal cell remodelling. For an inducible model of retinal degeneration to be useful, it must recapitulate these changes. Intravitreal administration of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) has recently been found to induce acute photoreceptor death. The aim of this study was to characterise the chronic effects of ATP on retinal integrity. Five week old, dark agouti rats were administered 50mM ATP into the vitreous of one eye and saline into the other. Vision was assessed using the electroretinogram and optokinetic response and retinal morphology investigated via histology. ATP caused significant loss of visual function within one day and loss of 50% of the photoreceptors within 1 week. At three months, 80% of photoreceptor nuclei were lost, while total photoreceptor loss occurred by six months. The degeneration and remodelling was similar to that found in heritable retinal dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration and included inner retinal neuronal loss, migration and formation of new synapses; Müller cell gliosis, migration and scarring; blood vessel loss and; retinal pigment epithelium migration. In addition, extreme degeneration and remodelling events such as neuronal and glial migration outside the neural retina and proliferative changes in glial cells were observed. These extreme changes were also observed in the two year old P23H Rhodopsin transgenic rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. This ATP-induced model of retinal degeneration may provide a valuable tool for the development of pharmaceutical therapies or for the testing of electronic implants aimed at restoring vision. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 09/2014; 522(13). DOI:10.1002/cne.23558 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is best known as the inhibitor of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which controls transcription elongation of RNA polymerase II and Tat transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus. Besides P-TEFb, several proteins have been identified as HEXIM1 binding proteins. It is noteworthy that more than half of the HEXIM1 binding partners are involved in cancers. P53 and two key regulators of the p53 pathway, nucleophosmin (NPM) and human double minute-2 protein (HDM2), are among the factors identified. This review will focus on the functional importance of the interactions between HEXIM1 and p53/NPM/HDM2. NPM and the cytoplasmic mutant of NPM, NPMc+, were found to regulate P-TEFb activity and RNA polymerase II transcription through the interaction with HEXIM1. Importantly, more than one-third of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients carry NPMc+, suggesting the involvement of HEXIM1 in tumorigenesis of AML. HDM2 was found to ubiquitinate HEXIM1. The HDM2-mediated ubiquitination of HEXIM1 did not lead to protein degradation of HEXIM1 but enhanced its inhibitory activity on P-TEFb. Recently, HEXIM1 was identified as a novel positive regulator of p53. HEXIM1 prevented p53 ubiquitination by competing with HDM2 in binding to p53. Taken together, the new evidence suggests a role of HEXIM1 in regulating the p53 pathway and tumorigenesis.09/2013; 5(3):838-56. DOI:10.3390/cancers5030838
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ABSTRACT: Hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is best known as the inhibitor of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is composed of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1. P-TEFb is an essential regulator for the transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. A genome-wide study using human embryonic stem cells shows that most mRNA synthesis is regulated at the stage of transcription elongation, suggesting a possible role for P-TEFb/HEXIM1 in the gene regulation of stem cells. In this report, we detected a marked increase in HEXIM1 protein levels in the differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) induced by LY294002 treatment. Since no changes in CDK9 and cyclin T1 were observed in the LY294002-treated cells, increased levels of HEXIM1 might lead to inhibition of P-TEFb activity. However, treatment with a potent P-TEFb inhibiting compound, flavopiridol, failed to induce hPSC differentiation, ruling out the possible requirement for P-TEFb kinase activity in hPSC differentiation. Conversely, differentiation was observed when hPSCs were incubated with hexamethylene bisacetamide, a HEXIM1 inducing reagent. The involvement of HEXIM1 in the regulation of hPSCs was further supported when overexpression of HEXIM1 concomitantly induced hPSC differentiation. Collectively, our study demonstrates a novel role of HEXIM1 in regulating hPSC fate through a P-TEFb-independent pathway.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72823. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072823 · 3.53 Impact Factor