Interactions of cytochrome P450s with their ligands.
ABSTRACT Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are heme-containing monooxygenases that contribute to an enormous range of enzymatic function including biosynthetic and detoxification roles. This review summarizes recent studies concerning interactions of CYPs with ligands including substrates, inhibitors, and diatomic heme-ligating molecules. These studies highlight the complexity in the relationship between the heme spin state and active site occupancy, the roles of water in directing protein-ligand and ligand-heme interactions, and the details of interactions between heme and gaseous diatomic CYP ligands. Both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of ligand binding are considered.
Article: Surface plasmon resonance analysis of antifungal azoles binding to CYP3A4 with kinetic resolution of multiple binding orientations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The heme-containing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a major enzymatic determinant of drug clearance and drug-drug interactions. The CYP3A4 isoform is inhibited by antifungal imidazoles or triazoles, which form low-spin heme iron complexes via formation of a nitrogen-ferric iron coordinate bond. However, CYP3A4 also slowly oxidizes the antifungal itraconazole (ITZ) at a site that is approximately 25 A from the triazole nitrogens, suggesting that large antifungal azoles can adopt multiple orientations within the CYP3A4 active site. Here, we report a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis with kinetic resolution of two binding modes of ITZ, and the related drug ketoconazole (KTZ). SPR reveals a very slow off-rate for one binding orientation. Multiphasic binding kinetics are observed, and one of the two binding components resolved by curve fitting exhibits "equilibrium overshoot". Preloading of CYP3A4 with the heme ligand imidazole abolishes this component of the antifungal azole binding trajectories, and it eliminates the conspicuously slow off-rate. The fractional populations of CYP3A4 complexes corresponding to different drug orientations can be manipulated by altering the duration of the pulse of drug exposure. UV-vis difference absorbance titrations yield low-spin spectra and K(D) values that are consistent with the high-affinity complex resolved by SPR. These results demonstrate that ITZ and KTZ bind in multiple orientations, including a catalytically productive mode and a slowly dissociating inhibitory mode. Most importantly, they provide the first example of a SPR-based method for the kinetic characterization of binding of a drug to any human CYP, including mechanistic insight not available from other methods.Biochemistry 06/2006; 45(20):6341-53. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: The ferrous-dioxygen intermediate in human cytochrome P450 3A4. Substrate dependence of formation and decay kinetics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The oxy-ferrous complex is the first of three branching intermediates in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450, in which the total efficiency of substrate turnover is curtailed by the side reaction of autoxidation. For human membrane-bound cytochromes P450, the oxy complex is believed to be the primary source of cytotoxic superoxide and peroxide, although information on the properties and stability of this intermediate is lacking. Here we document stopped-flow spectroscopic studies of the formation and decay of the oxy-ferrous complex in the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) as a function of temperature in the substrate-free and substrate-bound form. CYP3A4 solubilized in purified monomeric form in nanoscale POPC bilayers is functionally and kinetically homogeneous. In substrate-free CYP3A4, the oxy complex is extremely unstable with a half-life of approximately 30 ms at 5 degrees C. Saturation with testosterone or bromocriptine stabilizes the oxy-ferrous intermediate. Comparison of the autoxidation rates with the available data on CYP3A4 turnover kinetics suggests that the oxy complex may be an important route for uncoupling.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(33):23313-8. · 4.77 Impact Factor
International Journal of Clinical Practice 03/2007; 61(2):350-2. · 2.41 Impact Factor