Combined effects of short-term calorie restriction and exercise on insulin action in normal rats.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the effect of combination of short-term calorie restriction (CR) and moderate exercise on insulin action in normal rats. Rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: ad libitum, sedentary (A-Sed); calorie restriction, sedentary (CR-Sed); ad libitum, exercise (A-Ex); and calorie restriction, exercise (CR-Ex). Rats in the exercise groups were run on a rodent treadmill. Rats in the CR groups were fed every alternate day. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed improvements in both CR-Sed and A-Ex groups compared with the A-Sed group; no further improvement in glucose tolerance was observed in the CR-Ex group. In contrast, glucose infusion rates (GIRs) determined by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method indicated that the GIR of the CR and exercise combination was significantly better than that of the sole intervention of CR or exercise. There was no difference in the levels of fasting glucose, insulin, or high-molecular weight forms of adiponectin among the 4 groups. Protein expression of GLUT-4 in the skeletal muscle increased by exercise, but not by CR. Our findings indicate that the combination of exercise and CR may be effective in enhancing insulin sensitivity at the skeletal muscle in normal subjects.
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ABSTRACT: During aging there is an increasing imbalance of energy intake and expenditure resulting in obesity, frailty, and metabolic disorders. For decades, research has shown that caloric restriction (CR) and exercise can postpone detrimental aspects of aging. These two interventions invoke a similar physiological signature involving pathways associated with stress responses and mitochondrial homeostasis. Nonetheless, CR is able to delay aging processes that result in an increase of both mean and maximum lifespan, whereas exercise primarily increases healthspan. Due to the strict dietary regime necessary to achieve the beneficial effects of CR, most studies to date have focused on rodents and non-human primates. As a consequence, there is vast interest in the development of compounds such as resveratrol, metformin and rapamycin that would activate the same metabolic- and stress-response pathways induced by these interventions without actually restricting caloric intake. Therefore the scope of this review is to (i) describe the benefits of CR and exercise in healthy individuals, (ii) discuss the role of these interventions in the diseased state, and (iii) examine some of the promising pharmacological alternatives such as CR- and exercise-mimetics.Ageing research reviews 12/2011; 11(3):390-8. · 5.62 Impact Factor