Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.
ABSTRACT The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional wisdom holds that dissociation is a coping mechanism triggered by exposure to intense stressors. Drawing on recent research from multiple laboratories, we challenge this prevailing posttraumatic model of dissociation and dissociative disorders. Proponents of this model hold that dissociation and dissociative disorders are associated with (a) intense objective stressors (e.g., childhood trauma), (b) serious cognitive deficits that impede processing of emotionally laden information, and (c) an avoidant information-processing style characterized by a tendency to forget painful memories. We review findings that contradict these widely accepted assumptions and argue that a sociocognitive model better accounts for the extant data. We further propose a perspective on dissociation based on a recently established link between a labile sleep–wake cycle and memory errors, cognitive failures, problems in attentional control, and difficulties in distinguishing fantasy from reality. We conclude that this perspective may help to reconcile the posttraumatic and sociocognitive models of dissociation and dissociative disorders.Current Directions in Psychological Science 01/2012; 21(1):48-53. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Somatoform dissociation is supposed to be a vital aspect of the general concept of dissociation. The Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20 (SDQ-20) and the brief version SDQ-5 are self-report instruments constructed to identify somatic dissociation. Aim: In the present study, the psychometric qualities of the Swedish version of the SDQ-20 and its brief version, the SDQ-5, were examined among adolescents and young adults. Reliability and concurrent validity were investigated. Methods: A total of 512 adolescents and young adults participated in the study: 461 adolescents from a non-clinical sample and 50 adolescents and young adults from a clinical eating disorder outpatient unit. They completed the self-report instruments the SDQ-20, the SDQ-5 (part of SDQ-20), the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES, a trauma history scale) and the Dissociation Questionnaire-Sweden (Dis-Q-Sweden). Results: Both internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the Swedish version of SDQ-20 were good in both the non-clinical (α = 0.83) and the clinical groups (α = 0.84); the reliability for the SDQ-5 was, however, lower (non-clinical α = 0.50, clinical α = 0.64). Significant differences were found between the clinical and non-clinical groups on both somatoform and psychoform dissociation. Correlations between the Dis-Q-Sweden, SDQ-20 and SDQ-5 were generally high. The criterion and convergent validity was acceptable for both scales but somewhat better for SDQ-20 than for SDQ-5. Conclusion: The advantage with both the SDQ-20 and the SDQ-5 is that they are short questionnaires, but the results suggests that SDQ-20 is preferable based on the higher-quality psychometric properties of the SDQ-20.Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients.European Journal of Psychotraumatology 09/2014; 5.