Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and development of dental caries in vivo by 7-epiclusianone and fluoride

Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Campinas, SP, Brazil.
Biofouling (Impact Factor: 3.42). 10/2010; 26(7):865-72. DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2010.527435
Source: PubMed


7-Epiclusianone (7-epi), a novel naturally occurring compound isolated from Rheedia brasiliensis, effectively inhibits the synthesis of exopolymers and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. In the present study, the ability of 7-epi, alone or in combination with fluoride (F), to disrupt biofilm development and pathogenicity of S. mutans in vivo was examined using a rodent model of dental caries. Treatment (twice-daily, 60s exposure) with 7-epi, alone or in combination with 125 ppm F, resulted in biofilms with less biomass and fewer insoluble glucans than did those treated with vehicle-control, and they also displayed significant cariostatic effects in vivo (p < 0.05). The combination 7-epi + 125 ppm F was as effective as 250 ppm F (positive-control) in reducing the development of both smooth- and sulcal-caries. No histopathological alterations were observed in the animals after the experimental period. The data show that 7-epiclusianone is a novel and effective antibiofilm/anticaries agent, which may enhance the cariostatic properties of fluoride.

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Available from: Regiane Yatsuda, Jul 08, 2014
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    • "Broad-spectrum microbicides (e.g. chlorhexidine) application to control the infection is not favorable because of the indiscriminate eradication of all species present in the oral cavity, including those with a beneficial role to oral health.[567] Even approaches like removing dental plaque is not a desirable approach because dental plaque is made of large numbers of commensal bacteria with a limited number of oral pathogens; therefore, the “remove all or kill all” approach creates open, non-competitive surfaces for pathogens to propagate in the oral cavity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016) culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes). Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.
    08/2014; 3:169. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.139134
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate both sucrose and fluoride concentrations and time of biofilm formation on enamel carious lesions induced by an in vitro artificial-mouth caries model. For Study 1, biofilms formed by streptococci and lactobacilli were grown on the surface of human enamel slabs and exposed to artificial saliva containing 0.50 or 0.75 ppmF (22.5 h/d) and broth containing 3 or 5% sucrose (30 min; 3x/d) over 5 d. In Study 2, biofilms were grown in the presence of 0.75 ppmF and 3% sucrose over 3 and 9 days. Counts of viable cells on biofilms, lesion depth (LD), and the integrated mineral loss (IML) on enamel specimens were assessed at the end of the tested conditions. Counts of total viable cells and L. casei were affected by sucrose and fluoride concentrations as well as by time of biofilm formation. Enamel carious lesions were shallower and IML was lower in the presence of 0.75 ppmF than in the presence of 0.50 ppmF (P < 0.005). No significant effect of sucrose concentrations was found with respect to LD and IML (P > 0.25). Additionally, deeper lesions and higher IML were found after 9 d of biofilm formation (P < 0.005). Distinct sucrose concentrations did not affect enamel carious lesion development. The severity of enamel demineralization was reduced by the presence of the higher fluoride concentration. Additionally, an increase in the time of biofilm formation produced greater demineralization. Our results also suggest that the present model is suitable for studying aspects related to caries lesion development.
    01/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/348032
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    ABSTRACT: Biofouling in the oral cavity often causes serious problems. The ability of Streptococcus mutans to synthesize extracellular glucans from sucrose using glucosyltransferases (gtfs) is vital for the initiation and progression of dental caries. Recently, it was demonstrated that some biological compounds, such as secondary metabolites of probiotic bacteria, have an anti-biofouling effect. In this study, S. mutans was investigated for the anti-biofouling effect of Lactobacillus fermentum (L.f.)-derived biosurfactant. It was hypothesized that two enzymes produced by S. mutans, glucosyltransferases B and C, would be inhibited by the L.f.-biosurfactant. When these two enzymes were inhibited, fewer biofilms (or none) were formed. RNA was extracted from a 48-h biofilm of S. mutans formed in the presence or absence of L.f. biosurfactant, and the gene expression level of gtfB/C was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). L.f. biosurfactant showed substantial anti-biofouling activity because it reduced the process of attachment and biofilm production and also showed a reduction in gtfB/C gene expression (P value < 0.05).
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