Jet exhaust particles alter human dendritic cell maturation.
ABSTRACT Among combustion-derived air pollutants, little is known about jet kerosene characteristics and effects.
Particles yielded by experimental kerosene combustion in a jet engine were characterized with electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Immature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were exposed for 18 h to 10, 25 or 100 μg/mL jet exhaust particles and/or Escherichia coli-derived endotoxin. Antigen-presenting and costimulation molecules (HLA DR, CD40, CD80, CD86, CD11c), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 production were measured.
The primary particles of jet exhaust are spherical (9.9 nm), carbonaceous and exert an adjuvant effect on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation in vitro. Concomitant particle and endotoxin stimulation induced a high cytokine production with low antigen-presenting molecules; particle contact prior to endotoxin contact led to an opposite phenotype. Finally, low cytokine production and high costimulation molecules were present when particle adjunction followed endotoxin contact.
Jet exhaust particles act as adjuvants to endotoxin-induced dendritic cell maturation, suggesting possible implications for human health and a role for the time pattern of infectious and pollutant interplay.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of ultrafine particle inhalation on allergic airway inflammation are of growing interest. The mechanisms underlying these effects are currently under investigation. To investigate the role of oxidative stress on the adjuvant activity of inhaled elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFPs) on allergic airway inflammation. Ovalbumin-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFPs (504 microg/m(3) for 24 h) or filtered air immediately before allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine or vehicle before and during EC-UFP inhalation. Allergic inflammation was measured up to 1 week after allergen challenge by means of bronchoalveolar lavage, cytokine/total protein assays, lung function, and histology. Isoprostane levels in lung tissue served to measure oxidative stress. Transmission electron microscopy served to localize EC-UFPs in lung tissue and both electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunohistochemistry to quantify/localize nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. In sensitized and challenged mice EC-UFP inhalation increased allergen-induced lung lipid peroxidation and NF-kappaB activation in addition to inflammatory infiltrate, cytokine release, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Prominent NF-kappaB activation was observed in the same cell types in which EC-UFPs were detected. N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly reduced the adjuvant activity of EC-UFPs. In nonsensitized or sensitized but not challenged mice EC-UFP exposure induced a moderate increase in isoprostanes but no significant effect on other parameters of lung inflammation. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for oxidative stress in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of allergen-induced lung inflammation, where EC-UFP exposure has potentiating effects in lung allergic inflammation. Our data support the concept that allergic individuals are more susceptible to the adverse health effects of EC-UFPs.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2009; 179(11):984-91. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Air pollution has been associated with impaired health, including reduced lung function in adults. Moving to cleaner areas has been shown to attenuate adverse effects of air pollution on lung function in children but not in adults. We conducted a prospective study of 9651 adults (18 to 60 years of age) randomly selected from population registries in 1990 and assessed in 1991, with 8047 participants reassessed in 2002. There was complete information on lung volumes and flows (e.g., forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], FEV1 as a percentage of FVC, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the FVC [FEF25-75]), smoking habits, and spatially resolved concentrations of particulate matter that was less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) from a validated dispersion model assigned to residential addresses for 4742 participants at both the 1991 and the 2002 assessments and in the intervening years. Overall exposure to individual home outdoor PM10 declined over the 11-year follow-up period (median, -5.3 mug per cubic meter; interquartile range, -7.5 to -4.2). In mixed-model regression analyses, with adjustment for confounders, PM10 concentrations at baseline, and clustering within areas, there were significant negative associations between the decrease in PM10 and the rate of decline in FEV1 (P=0.045), FEV1 as a percentage of FVC (P=0.02), and FEF25-75 (P=0.001). The net effect of a decline of 10 microg of PM10 per cubic meter over an 11-year period was to reduce the annual rate of decline in FEV1 by 9% and of FEF25-75 by 16%. Cumulative exposure in the interval between the two examinations showed similar associations. Decreasing exposure to airborne particulates appears to attenuate the decline in lung function related to exposure to PM10. The effects are greater in tests reflecting small-airway function.New England Journal of Medicine 01/2008; 357(23):2338-47. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health hazard, and people with preexisting respiratory disease may be at increased risk. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to diesel traffic in people with asthma in an urban, roadside environment. We recruited 60 adults with either mild or moderate asthma to participate in a randomized, crossover study. Each participant walked for 2 hours along a London street (Oxford Street) and, on a separate occasion, through a nearby park (Hyde Park). We performed detailed real-time exposure, physiological, and immunologic measurements. Participants had significantly higher exposures to fine particles (<2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), ultrafine particles, elemental carbon, and nitrogen dioxide on Oxford Street than in Hyde Park. Walking for 2 hours on Oxford Street induced asymptomatic but consistent reductions in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (up to 6.1%) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (up to 5.4%) that were significantly larger than the reductions in FEV1 and FVC after exposure in Hyde Park (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively, for the overall effect of exposure, and P<0.005 at some time points). The effects were greater in subjects with moderate asthma than in those with mild asthma. These changes were accompanied by increases in biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation (sputum myeloperoxidase, 4.24 ng per milliliter after exposure in Hyde Park vs. 24.5 ng per milliliter after exposure on Oxford Street; P=0.05) and airway acidification (maximum decrease in pH, 0.04% after exposure in Hyde Park and 1.9% after exposure on Oxford Street; P=0.003). The changes were associated most consistently with exposures to ultrafine particles and elemental carbon. Our observations serve as a demonstration and explanation of the epidemiologic evidence that associates the degree of traffic exposure with lung function in asthma.New England Journal of Medicine 12/2007; 357(23):2348-58. · 51.66 Impact Factor