Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common complaint of women presenting for gynecologic and primary care. Evaluation of CPP requires obtaining a careful history including not only obstetrical and gynecologic information but also screening for gastrointestinal, urologic, musculoskeletal, and neurological disorders. A detailed physical examination is also necessary. Management of CPP depends largely on the cause. Gynecologic causes include endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, adhesive disease, pelvic congestion syndrome, ovarian retention syndrome, ovarian remnant syndrome, adenomyosis, and leiomyomas. Some non-gynecologic causes are interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, pelvic floor tension myalgia, and abdominal myofascial pain syndrome. Treatments may be directed toward specific causes or may be targeted to general pain management. The most effective therapy may involve using both approaches. The diagnosis and treatment of each of the above disorders, and the management of CPP itself, is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When assessing women with chronic vulvar pain, women's health physical therapists search for comorbid mechanical components (including musculoskeletal, fascial, and visceral) and other disorders that may contribute to or be caused by chronic vulvar pain (CVP). Pelvic floor hypertonicity is a key perpetuating factor for CVP. Comprehensive physical therapy evaluation and suggested physical therapy interventions are described. Anatomy of the pelvis, common evaluative findings, and specifics for pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation are presented. Normalization of pelvic floor muscle function contributes to the reduction of CVP. Successful treatment includes the identification and treatment of co-existing physical abnormalities throughout the trunk and pelvis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To construct pain maps in order to describe the distribution of pelvic pain in a group of endometriosis patients and endometriosis-free patients, to assess the feasibility of this method.
A total of 159 patients with pelvic pain who were scheduled for diagnostic laparoscopy.
A total of 117 patients with and 42 patients without endometriosis were included. The pain distribution between these two patient groups appeared to differ in some peripheral anatomical structures. In the endometriosis patients, the pain was most frequently located in the rectouterine pouch.
In endometriosis patients, pain mapping to assess preoperative pain sensations relative to the anatomic location of endometriotic lesions is feasible. The pain provoked by vaginal examination is frequently perceived as median relative to the actual anatomic location of the endometriotic lesions. Several anatomic and neurophysiological factors may explain this phenomenon.
Archives of Gynecology 05/2012; 286(3):687-93. DOI:10.1007/s00404-012-2369-4 · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.
Bailliè re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 07/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2014.07.008 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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