Article

The Genetics of Parkinson Disease

Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.
Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.63). 10/2010; 23(4):228-42. DOI: 10.1177/0891988710383572
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. In most instances, PD is thought to result from a complex interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors, though rare monogenic forms of the disease do exist. Mutations in 6 genes (SNCA, LRRK2, PRKN, DJ1, PINK1, and ATP13A2) have conclusively been shown to cause familial parkinsonism. In addition, common variation in 3 genes (MAPT, LRRK2, and SNCA) and loss-of-function mutations in GBA have been well-validated as susceptibility factors for PD. The function of these genes and their contribution to PD pathogenesis remain to be fully elucidated. The prevalence, incidence, clinical manifestations, and genetic components of PD are discussed in this review.

Full-text

Available from: Ignacio F Mata, May 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations within the LRRK2 gene have been identified in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and have been implicated in the dysfunction of several cellular pathways. Here, we explore how pathogenic mutations and the inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity affect cytoskeleton dynamics in mouse and human cell systems. We generated and characterized a novel transgenic mouse model expressing physiological levels of human wild type and G2019S-mutant LRRK2. No neuronal loss or neurodegeneration was detected in midbrain dopamine neurons at the age of 12 months. Postnatal hippocampal neurons derived from transgenic mice showed no alterations in the seven parameters examined concerning neurite outgrowth sampled automatically on several hundred neurons using high content imaging. Treatment with the kinase inhibitor LRRK2-IN-1 resulted in no significant changes in the neurite outgrowth. In human fibroblasts we analyzed whether pathogenic LRRK2 mutations change cytoskeleton functions such as cell adhesion. To this end we compared the adhesion characteristics of human skin fibroblasts derived from six PD patients carrying one of three different pathogenic LRRK2 mutations and from four age-matched control individuals. The mutant LRRK2 variants as well as the inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity did not reveal any significant cell adhesion differences in cultured fibroblasts. In summary, our results in both human and mouse cell systems suggest that neither the expression of wild type or mutant LRRK2, nor the inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity affect neurite complexity and cellular adhesion.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(4):e0118947. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118947 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta as well as motor impairment. Aggregation of α-synuclein in neuronal cells plays a key role in this disease. At present, therapeutics for PD provides moderate symptomatic benefits, but it is not able to delay the development of the disease. Current efforts toward the treatment of PD are to identify new drugs that slow or arrest the progressive course of PD by interfering with a disease-specific pathogenetic process in PD patients. Irisflorentin derived from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is an herb which has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential for irisflorentin to ameliorate PD in Caenorhabditis elegans models. Our data reveal that irisflorentin prevents α-synuclein accumulation in the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model and also improves dopaminergic neuron degeneration, food-sensing behavior, and life-span in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Caenorhabditis elegans model, thus indicating its potential as a anti-parkinsonian drug candidate. Irisflorentin may exert its effects by promoting rpn-3 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes and down-regulating egl-1 expression to block apoptosis pathways. These findings encourage further investigation on irisflorentin as a possible potent agent for PD treatment.
    03/2015; 5(1):4. DOI:10.7603/s40681-015-0004-y
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that acetylated and phosphorylated derivatives of porphyran extracted from Porphyra haitanensis exhibit antioxidant activity in cell-free system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of porphyran and its derivatives on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure cell viability. Changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured by rhodamine123 using flow cytometry. The results showed that porphyran and its two derivatives, acetylated porphyran (AP) and phosphorylated porphyran (PP) (<1 mg/mL) alone did not have any toxic effects on MES23.5 cells. The cell viability decreased when cells were treated with 25 µmol/L 6-OHDA. Both AP and PP, rather than porphyran, significantly antagonized 25 µmol/L 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity. However, neither AP nor PP could antagonize 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) collapse. None of the three materials were effective on cell survival when cells were cotreated with 75 µmol/L 6-OHDA. These results suggest that two derivatives of porphyran, AP and PP, could antagonize the weak toxicity of 6-OHDA on MES23.5 dopaminergic cells, possessing minor neuroprotective effects independent of mitochondria restoration.
    03/2015; 3(3):39. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.01.33