"These are beautiful, fast growing, ornamental organisms demanding low maintenance and have gained popularity in aquarium trade. But behind that pleasing appearance lie some specialised stinging cells, nematocysts, which inject a toxin in defence, prey or in stress (Moshirfar et al., 2010). Some zoanthids are also associated with a deadly toxin, palytoxin, found in wide variety of marine organisms, viz. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The marine ecosystem carries immense undescribed organisms having huge potential uses for mankind. The zoanthids, classified under phylum Cnidaria, are mostly found in shallow waters, below the low tide mark. Based on morphological features, we identified a zoanthid during an expedition to Kanyakumari. Thorough examination of the color variations, polyp length, tentacle number, colony appearance and comparison with previously reported species of the genus, suggests that the species is Zoanthus pulchellus. This is the first report of this species from India.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palytoxins are potent marine biotoxins that have recently become endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, and are becoming more frequently associated with seafood. Due to their high toxicity, suitable methods to quantify palytoxins are needed. Thus, we developed an indirect sandwich ELISA for palytoxin and 42-hydroxy-palytoxin. An intra-laboratory study demonstrated sensitivity (limit of detection, LOD=1.1 ng/ml; limit of quantitation, LOQ=2.2 ng/ml), accuracy (bias of 2.1%), repeatability (RSDr=6% and 9% for intra- and inter-assay variability, respectively) and specificity: other common marine toxins (okadaic acid, domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin-3 and yessotoxin) don't cross-react in this assay. It performed well in three different matrices: observed LOQs were 11.0, 9.6, and 2.4 ng/ml for mussel extracts, algal net samples and seawater, respectively, with good accuracy and precision. The LOQ in seafood is 11 µg palytoxin/kg mussel meat, lower than that of the most common detection technique, LC-MS/MS.
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