Outpatient follow-up visit and 30-day emergency department visit and readmission in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT Readmissions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common and costly. We examined the effect of early follow-up visit with patient's primary care physician (PCP) or pulmonologist following acute hospitalization on the 30-day risk of an emergency department (ER) visit and readmission.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with an identifiable PCP who were hospitalized for COPD between 1996 and 2006. Three or more visits to a PCP in the year prior to the hospitalization established a PCP for a patient. We performed a Cox proportional hazard regression with time-dependent covariates to determine the risk of 30-day ER visit and readmission in patients with or without a follow-up visit to their PCP or pulmonologist.
Of the 62 746 patients admitted for COPD, 66.9% had a follow-up visit with their PCP or pulmonologist within 30 days of discharge. Factors associated with lower likelihood of outpatient follow-up visit were longer length of hospital stay, prior hospitalization for COPD, older age, black race, lower socioeconomic status, and emergency admission. Those receiving care at nonteaching, for-profit, and smaller-sized hospitals were more likely to have a follow-up visit. In a multivariate, time-dependent analysis, patients who had a follow-up visit had a significantly reduced risk of an ER visit (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-0.90) and readmission (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96).
Continuity with patient's PCP or pulmonologist after an acute hospitalization may lower rates of ER visits and readmission in patients with COPD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: James S Goodwin, May 30, 2015
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Financial penalties for readmission have been expanded beyond medical conditions to include surgical procedures. Hospitals are working to reduce readmissions; however, little is known about the reasons for surgical readmission. To characterize the reasons, timing, and factors associated with unplanned postoperative readmissions. Patients undergoing surgery at one of 346 continuously enrolled US hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, had clinically abstracted information examined. Readmission rates and reasons (ascertained by clinical data abstractors at each hospital) were assessed for all surgical procedures and for 6 representative operations: bariatric procedures, colectomy or proctectomy, hysterectomy, total hip or knee arthroplasty, ventral hernia repair, and lower extremity vascular bypass. Unplanned 30-day readmission and reason for readmission. The unplanned readmission rate for the 498,875 operations was 5.7%. For the individual procedures, the readmission rate ranged from 3.8% for hysterectomy to 14.9% for lower extremity vascular bypass. The most common reason for unplanned readmission was surgical site infection (SSI) overall (19.5%) and also after colectomy or proctectomy (25.8%), ventral hernia repair (26.5%), hysterectomy (28.8%), arthroplasty (18.8%), and lower extremity vascular bypass (36.4%). Obstruction or ileus was the most common reason for readmission after bariatric surgery (24.5%) and the second most common reason overall (10.3%), after colectomy or proctectomy (18.1%), ventral hernia repair (16.7%), and hysterectomy (13.4%). Only 2.3% of patients were readmitted for the same complication they had experienced during their index hospitalization. Only 3.3% of patients readmitted for SSIs had experienced an SSI during their index hospitalization. There was no time pattern for readmission, and early (≤7 days postdischarge) and late (>7 days postdischarge) readmissions were associated with the same 3 most common reasons: SSI, ileus or obstruction, and bleeding. Patient comorbidities, index surgical admission complications, non-home discharge (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 1.35-1.46]), teaching hospital status (HR, 1.14 [95% CI 1.07-1.21]), and higher surgical volume (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.25]) were associated with a higher risk of hospital readmission. Readmissions after surgery were associated with new postdischarge complications related to the procedure and not exacerbation of prior index hospitalization complications, suggesting that readmissions after surgery are a measure of postdischarge complications. These data should be considered when developing quality indicators and any policies penalizing hospitals for surgical readmission.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2015; 313(5):483-95. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.18614 · 30.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Timely outpatient follow-up has been promoted as a key strategy to reduce hospital readmissions, though one-half of patients readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge do not have follow-up before the readmission. Guidance is needed to identify the optimal timing of hospital follow-up for patients with conditions of varying complexity. Using North Carolina Medicaid claims data for hospital-discharged patients from April 2012 through March 2013, we constructed variables indicating whether patients received follow-up visits within successive intervals and whether these patients were readmitted within 30 days. We constructed 7 clinical risk strata based on 3M Clinical Risk Groups (CRGs) and determined expected readmission rates within each CRG. We applied survival modeling to identify groups that appear to benefit from outpatient follow-up within 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days after discharge. The final study sample included 44,473 Medicaid recipients with 65,085 qualifying discharges. The benefit of early follow-up varied according to baseline readmission risk. For example, follow-up within 14 days after discharge was associated with 1.5%-point reduction in readmissions in the lowest risk strata (P <.001) and a 19.1%-point reduction in the highest risk strata (P <.001). Follow-up within 7 days was associated with meaningful reductions in readmission risk for patients with multiple chronic conditions and a greater than 20% baseline risk of readmission, a group that represented 24% of discharged patients. Most patients do not meaningfully benefit from early outpatient follow-up. Transitional care resources would be best allocated toward ensuring that highest risk patients receive follow-up within 7 days. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.The Annals of Family Medicine 03/2015; 13(2):115-22. DOI:10.1370/afm.1753 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that vulnerable patients and caregivers attempting to navigate the transition from hospital to home are likely to encounter a stressful period fraught with a high risk of adverse events, rehospitalization, and often unsuccessful follow-up.1,2 Quality improvement specialists and administrators have identified this care transition as a target for improving outcomes, particularly for elderly patients with multiple comorbidities, and as a financial risk for hospitals, given the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) penalty contained within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.3 Not surprisingly, researchers have sought to identify interventions that might reduce the rate of rehospitalization, though they have often targeted specific diseases.4 Several evidence-based transitional care models or intervention bundles have been shown to reduce 30-day readmissions,5 but research has not delineated which components of these transitional care approaches ...Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2015; 30(5). DOI:10.1007/s11606-015-3225-6 · 3.42 Impact Factor