Mitotic Inhibition of GRASP65 Organelle Tethering Involves Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) Phosphorylation Proximate to an Internal PDZ Ligand
Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. Journal of Biological Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
10/2010; 285(51):39994-40003. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.189449
GRASP65 links cis-Golgi cisternae via a homotypic, N-terminal PDZ interaction, and its mitotic phosphorylation disrupts this activity. Neither the identity of the PDZ ligand involved in the GRASP65 self-interaction nor the mechanism by which phosphorylation inhibits its interaction is known. Phospho-mimetic mutation of known cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B sites, all of which are in the C-terminal "regulatory domain" of the molecule, failed to block organelle tethering. However, we identified a site phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in the GRASP65 N-terminal domain for which mutation to aspartic acid blocked tethering and alanine substitution prevented mitotic Golgi unlinking. Further, using interaction assays, we discovered an internal PDZ ligand adjacent to the PLK phosphorylation site that was required for tethering. These results reveal the mechanism of phosphoinhibition as direct inhibition by PLK1 of the PDZ ligand underlying the GRASP65 self-interaction.
Available from: Hebao Yuan
- "The role of S376 phosphorylation is the least well understood to date. In addition to the three phosphorylation sites characterized in this study, GRASP65 is also modified by kinases on S189, S216, S217 and S367 at least in vitro (Preisinger et al., 2005; Sengupta and Linstedt, 2010). Characterization of these sites and their relationships may provide further insight in understanding the function of GRASP65 and Golgi biogenesis during cell division. "
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ABSTRACT: GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.
Biology Open 12/2012; 1(12):1204-14. DOI:10.1242/bio.20122659 · 2.42 Impact Factor
Available from: Catherine Rabouille
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian GRASPs (Golgi reassembly stacking proteins) GRASP65 and GRASP55 were first discovered more than a decade ago as factors involved in the stacking of Golgi cisternae. Since then, orthologues have been identified in many different organisms and GRASPs have been assigned new roles that may seem disconnected. In vitro, GRASPs have been shown to have the biochemical properties of Golgi stacking factors, but the jury is still out as to whether they act as such in vivo. In mammalian cells, GRASP65 and GRASP55 are required for formation of the Golgi ribbon, a structure which is fragmented in mitosis owing to the phosphorylation of a number of serine and threonine residues situated in its C-terminus. Golgi ribbon unlinking is in turn shown to be part of a mitotic checkpoint. GRASP65 also seems to be the key target of signalling events leading to re-orientation of the Golgi during cell migration and its breakdown during apoptosis. Interestingly, the Golgi ribbon is not a feature of lower eukaryotes, yet a GRASP homologue is present in the genome of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, suggesting they have other roles. GRASPs have no identified function in bulk anterograde protein transport along the secretory pathway, but some cargo-specific trafficking roles for GRASPs have been discovered. Furthermore, GRASP orthologues have recently been shown to mediate the unconventional secretion of the cytoplasmic proteins AcbA/Acb1, in both Dictyostelium discoideum and yeast, and the Golgi bypass of a number of transmembrane proteins during Drosophila development. In the present paper, we review the multiple roles of GRASPs.
Biochemical Journal 02/2011; 433(3):423-33. DOI:10.1042/BJ20101540 · 4.40 Impact Factor
Available from: Antonino Colanzi
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ABSTRACT: During mitosis, the Golgi complex undergoes a multi-step fragmentation process that is instrumental to its correct partitioning into the daughter cells. To prepare for this segregation, the Golgi ribbon is initially separated into individual stacks during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Then, at the onset of mitosis, these individual stacks are further disassembled into dispersed fragments. Inhibition of this Golgi fragmentation step results in a block or delay of G2/M transition, depending on the experimental approach. Thus, correct segregation of the Golgi complex appears to be monitored by a 'Golgi mitotic checkpoint'. Using a microinjection-based approach, we recently identified the first target of the Golgi checkpoint, whereby a block of this Golgi fragmentation impairs recruitment of the mitotic kinase Aurora-A to, and its activation at, the centrosomes. Overexpression of Aurora-A can override this cell cycle block, indicating that Aurora-A is a major effector of the Golgi checkpoint. We have also shown that this block of Aurora-A recruitment to the centrosomes is not mediated by the known mechanisms of regulation of Aurora-A function. Here we discuss our findings in relation to the known functions of Aurora-A.
Bioarchitecture 03/2011; 1(2):61-65. DOI:10.4161/bioa.1.2.15329
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